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NASA image ~ view of Earth rising above the lunar surface ~ 24 December 1968

Celestial Solutions to Terrestrial Strife

Kim Peart

This article explores why an extraordinary effort must be made to secure a permanent and sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth.

In 1968 the people of Earth received an unexpected Christmas present, when Apollo astronauts discovered the Earth rising above the lunar surface and sent the photo home.

The people of Earth fell in love with the new view of their home planet, but then began to forget that the photo of the Earthrise had been taken from space.

The Earthrise image inspired a new wave of environmental concern on Earth, but conservationists failed to connect all the dots and in part as a consequence, we are heading into a black future with dangerous Earth changes gathering pace around us.

If conservationists had merged missions with space settlement advocates in the 1970s, the strength and vision of the combined movement would have opened the way to a new future on a safe Earth.

Unfortunately, the space and green communities saw themselves on two different paths, but that perception was wrong, as a green future on Earth was totally dependent on a future in space.

The hour is late but the need is urgent, for the space and green communities to work out that space is the new green, as only with space technology can the Earth be kept green.

The realization of the intimate connection between space futures and green needs will lead to revolutionary change on Earth, as a new future for humankind is created beyond Earth.

The critical appreciation must dawn that human technology is an extension of Nature in the evolution of life toward a marriage of biology and machine.

Humans might not hope to survive without machines on Earth, as an increasing number of people live a healthy life with mechanical assistance and humans could not survive in space without machines.

A new human is emerging who is increasingly merged with machines, now on Earth, but which will blossom in space and among the stars.

It is the frustrating of the evolutionary shift to the new human in space that has caused and is driving environmental and political problems on Earth.

The time is passing to give birth to the new human and in so doing, save the Earth, or be the cause of death in a breach birth.

We are the midwives of the new human and must consider our role with care, if we wish to see a future for life on and from Earth in the Universe.

Like the emergence of a butterfly from the chrysalis, the new human must now break out of the Earthly cocoon, to spread its wings to fly among the stars.

The cosmic survival of humankind is now in the hands of the midwives of Earth.

A Missed Opportunity

When the vision for space futures was strong in the 1960s, those who could act on serious space development failed to do so, preferring to remain firmly focused on the Earth, or caught up in wars like that in Vietnam, which drained away the treasure and life that could have been invested in space development.

The nations that were able to act, could have started building solar power stations in space in the 1970s and begin the transition from fossil fuel to stellar energy, harvested from the Sun in space and beamed down to Earth for terrestrial power grids.

In his 1977 book ’The High Frontier’, Gerard K. O’Neill wrote of space based solar power, "If this development comes to pass, we will find ourselves here on Earth with a clean energy source, and we will further improve our environment by saving, each year, over a billion tons of fossil fuels,” (page 162).

O’Neill was a professor at Princeton University, who launched a student project to figure out how human civilization could be established in space.

That student project became a blueprint for a civilian space program.

NASA made many studies of O’Neill’s vision, but the political will was not there to begin space settlement.

The political will was also missing to begin energy transition, from burning fossil fuel to accessing the power of the Sun.

Warnings from Science

James Hansen once worked at NASA on the study of Venus, which has mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) in the planet’s atmosphere and a ground temperature that makes the rocks glow in the heat.

When Hansen perceived a problem with our home planet, he moved over to the study of the Earth and became the first scientist to warn the World of the implications of climate change driven by global warming because of rising levels of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere.

The grandfather of climate science, as Hansen is often called, published a book in 2009 called 'Storms of My Grandchildren’, in which he spelt out the need to keep atmospheric CO2 below 350 parts per million (ppm) and described what will happen to our home planet if we allow  CO2 in our air to rise higher.

At this point we can be concerned, as CO2 is now passing 400 ppm and in the past year this rise was 3 ppm.

There is no plan in action that will stop the CO2 level rising in the air and there is no plan in action that will bring atmospheric CO2 back below 350 ppm.

We are over 50 ppm CO2 into the danger zone, amounting to billions of gigatons and the only action that will change this, is swift direct extraction of carbon from the air.

How do we get atmospheric CO2 down to a level we last had in the 1970s, when we could have begun the transition to stellar energy, by building solar power stations in space?

The medicine the nations avoided then may be the only medicine that we can turn to now.

Awakening Without Action

When the nations met to discuss climate change in Paris in December 2015, there was an acceptance of Hansen’s findings that any temperature rise on Earth should not be allowed to go above 1.5C.

The Earth’s temperature has already risen 1C and the current CO2 level now passing 400 ppm, will send the Earth’s temperature rising beyond 2C, which is now accepted as a recipe for dangerous Earth changes.

The higher the level of CO2 rises in the air, the tougher the problem becomes, as the Earth shifts to a more dangerous climate of storms, droughts and floods.

A recent study published in Nature Geoscience has shown that atmospheric CO2 is now rising faster and to a higher level than at any time in the past 66 million years and that the Earth’s temperature rise could reach 4C by 2100. [1]

The Earth’s temperature may rise faster and sooner, if Nature begins releasing too much stored carbon as greenhouse gases which further increase the greenhouse effect, causing the planet to heat up.

Sadly for the Earth, the nations are not willing to entertain action that would deal with the Earth change problem at a level that will solve it.

As a consequence of dual-minded thinking, with the nations admitting a problem but not acting to fix it, the Earth is heading into dangerous climate change and we have no idea just how bad the situation will get.

We do, however, have plenty of warnings and like the nations of Earth, we can ignore the signs and pretend that it’s all just a bad dream.

With the nations of Earth trapped in frozen inaction, like quivering animals in the headlights of a truck on the road at night, it is over to the people of Earth to wake up and forge a plan to win back a safe planet.

Political leaders can only hold power by the will of the people, which in reality makes politics the shadow of the people.

Even a dictator can only rule when enough people agree to their dictate.

When the people move, politicians are forced to move, like a shadow, or they risk losing power.

The real power on Earth is in the hands of the people.

When people awaken to their power, they can shape the political landscape to their wishes.

Now is a moment in history when the citizens of Earth need to awaken and use their power to win back a safe Earth.

Awakening with Action

If we are willing to accept the belated consensus of the nations to keep the Earth’s temperature from rising higher than 1.5C, which is based on Hansen’s findings, then we need to know exactly how we will extract 50 ppm CO2 from the air, a volume increasing daily, if we would like to win back a safe Earth.

If we fail to get serious about the Earth, James Lovelock warns us that the Earth will change quickly to a permanently hotter environment, which will not be friendly for us.

In his 2009 book ‘The Disappearing Face of Gaia’, Lovelock describes how, when working at NASA searching for life on Mars, Carl Sagan alerted him to the puzzle of Earth’s temperature control.

Sagan told Lovelock how the Sun is now 35% hotter since its birth 4.5 billion years ago, but despite our star’s increasing radiance, the Earth has been able to maintain a steady temperature that best suits life.

This is achieved by sequestering carbon in rocks and fossil fuel deposits. 

Human progress in the Space Age is now presenting a threat to our planet’s life-support system.

Instead of reaching to the Sun for power when this became possible in the 1970s, by building solar power stations in space, the nations continued focusing on the belly of the Earth for energy as if there was no tomorrow, and they could do anything they liked to the Earth and get away without paying a price.

Now the price of burying our heads in the sands of Earth has become all too apparent.

We need to change direction and quickly.

By building solar power stations in space, we will gain direct access to the power generated by the fusion furnace of our star, which has so much fuel in reserve, it will burn fiercely over the next 5 billion years, until expanding to the orbit of the Earth as a red giant star.

Under the face of a heating Sun, life only has around a billion years to run on Earth, before our planet begins to turn into a second Venus, where lead will melt on the surface.

Human civilization has a limited future on Earth, which could now be made all too brief through burning so much fossil fuel for too long.

The total failure of those who could act, but failed to take action on energy transition, has disturbed the carbon balance on Earth, which is now sending CO2 rising in our air beyond 400 ppm, and will in turn send the global temperature rise up above the danger zone of 1.5C.

Temperature rise in response to the level of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the air does not happen instantly.

With 400 ppm CO2 in the air we are already locked into dangerous climate change, landing us into dangerous Earth changes.

If we rely on a slow path of CO2 reduction, by growing trees and other means, we are forgetting that the hotter world that we are making is forcing Nature to release further stores of greenhouse gases, leading to a runaway greenhouse effect on Earth, which will destroy trees.

We have used fossil fuel to build our world of dreams, but we have been burning nitroglycerine on a slow fuse and it is about to blow up in our faces.

How rising levels of CO2 drives Earth change

CO2 is a potent greenhouse gas, because each molecule of CO2 stays in the air for a very long time, absorbing heat radiating from the Earth and releasing the heat energy back into the air.

With more CO2 in the air, more heat is kept in the air, instead of escaping into space, increasing the Earth's greenhouse effect and raising the temperature of our planet.

Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas, but each methane molecule has a shorter life in the air than CO2, before breaking down and releasing more CO2 into the atmosphere.

The oceans absorb CO2 from the air, but as atmospheric CO2 rises, the oceans are made more acidic from absorbing more CO2.

The rising level of ocean acidity is a problem for life in the sea, which cannot evolve quickly enough to adapt to the changing environment.

In increasingly acidic sea water shells are dissolved, which impacts shellfish and corals.

The ocean also absorbs much of the extra heat in the air, which is making the oceans warmer.

Warmer sea water is now being observed working its way under the ice sheets of Antarctica, melting the ice from below and making channels up into the ice sheet, which are now being seen in satellite images when the ice above collapses. [2]

Channeling by warmer ocean water may lead to a more rapid break-up of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) than previously expected, especially when the channels meet crevasses.

The WAIS has enough ice to send the global sea level up by 3 metres.

More channeling has been observed in the Totten Glacier in East Antarctica, again caused by warmer ocean waters melting the ice from below.

The Totten Glacier, if it collapses, holds a similar volume of sea level rise to the WAIS.

In the fast warming Arctic the Greenland Glacier is showing signs of stress and the year is expected to arrive when the Arctic Ocean will become ice free in the summer.

With less or no ice on the Arctic Ocean, more sunlight is absorbed into the sea.

On the floor of the Arctic Ocean are vast deposits of ice mixed with methane, called methane hydrates, which could release their store of greenhouse gases more suddenly than we would like.

Methane is already reported to be bubbling to the surface of the Arctic Ocean.

Arctic permafrost is melting and as it turns to water, greenhouse gases are being released, including CO2 and methane.

Rising levels of CO2 in the air are impacting plant biology, making some food crops more toxic and less nutritious.

For the Australian koala, this mix may prove lethal, as their gum leaf tucker will become more toxic and less nutritious as CO2 rises in the air, leading to death from malnutrition and starvation.

With the Earth now being forced to release greenhouse gases in a hotter world and humans still burning fossil fuel more than ever, the people of Earth are largely sleepwalking into catastrophe.

We now face a carbon apocalypse and there is no plan of action to deal with it.

No nation now knows how high the CO2 level in the air or sea will rise, how high this will drive our planet’s temperature, how hot this will make the oceans, how much more acidic the oceans will be driven, how soon all Arctic sea ice will be gone in the summer, or how soon the WAIS and Totten Glacier will collapse and drive up sea levels by many metres.

It would only take a metre of sea level rise to affect many cities and remove a few nations from the face of the Earth.

A Warning from Deep Time

There have been many extinction events on Earth, but the greatest of all is referred to as the Great Dying, which happened 252 million years ago when 96% of marine species and 70% of land species were wiped out.

It is believed that the process began when volcanic activity burnt coal deposits, releasing vast volumes of CO2 into the air, which as now, raised the temperature of the Earth and especially, in the sea.

In warmer sea water with less oxygen, sulphur bacteria flourished and released toxic hydrogen sulphide gas that is lethal to life on land, including vegetation and destroyed much of the protective ozone layer, letting in lethal doses of radiation. [3]

In the sea there are already growing areas with less oxygen and it is wondered by some scientists if the stage is being set for a repeat of the Great Dying on Earth now.

We can hope that doesn’t happen, or we can get serious about our survival prospects.

Our folly with fossil fuel may force us to live in protected environments on Earth, as if we were living in space, if we wish to survive.

Out of Paris

In April 2016 the nations of Earth are invited to sign a global treaty to avoid the worst of climate change, by limiting greenhouse gas emissions, but without extraction of atmospheric CO2 in the bargain.

The sad reality is, the Earth’s temperature rise is expected to reach 4C, which is well into the danger zone and may go higher without much change in greenhouse gas emissions.

The Secretary of the World Meteorological Organisation, Petteri Taalas, declared in their report in March 2016, “Our planet is sending a powerful message”. [4]

The restricted plan of the nations to fight climate change will be a gamble, with the odds stacked against success and certainty of failure, unless radical action begins very soon.

The price of failure will see the loss of billions of lives in an Earth going violent with climate and ocean change driven by CO2 and global heating.

Environmental crisis has frequently led to war in human history and in our world bristling with nuclear weapons, war could all too easily slide into nuclear madness.

Nuclear war may simply herald the end of life on Earth.

Rising to the Challenge

By reaching to the Sun for power in space, we can gain direct access to the level of energy needed to directly extract excess carbon from the air and also process extracted carbon into a useful resource for Earth and space industries.

There will be other benefits from reaching to the Sun.

With solar power stations in space, we will be able to launch industry beyond Earth, which will relieve our home planet of the pressure of much heavy industry.

With industry in space, we will be able to build our planet’s defenses against asteroids, which could take out a city, or if large enough, end our race on Earth.

It is a simple fact that there is no limit to growth beyond Earth, using the energy of the Sun and resources found among the asteroids, moons and planets.

There are trillions of objects in the Solar System, and even speculation of an Earth-sized planet beyond Pluto.

If the people of Earth rose to the challenge of serious space development, a giant leap could be made to a permanent and sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth.

Such a presence can be described as a Liberty Line, beyond which there will be no further cost to Earth.

Beyond the Liberty Line the return on the investment, from across the Solar System and among the stars, will be infinite.

This new economic dynamic can be described as a stellar economy, which will begin on Earth the moment a decision is made to get serious about space development and begin working toward a giant leap to the Liberty Line.

The stellar economy will generate the resources needed to deliver a healthy and creative life for all Earth's children, which will be the way to win peace on Earth.

It is the care of all children that will win goodwill on Earth, removing many reasons for conflict or terrorism.

Achieving peace on Earth will improve security in space, where human habitats are fragile bubbles in a vacuum, all too easily burst from within or without by conflict and or terrorism.

We need peace on Earth to keep peace in space.

With industry in space, we can deal with all problems on Earth, including the increasing volume of trash in the sea, by building robots in space to clean the oceans.

With industry in space we will be able to build a Sunshade for the Earth and extend the tenure of life on our home planet by billions of years.

With industry in space, we will be able to build orbital cities, which can generate an Earth gravity via rotation and which can be located anywhere in the Solar System and beyond.

In a future with a stellar economy, there will be real work with real pay for all able workers and an assured quality basic income.

In a stellar economy, the blight of terrestrial economics that delivers underemployment, unemployment, poverty and homelessness will be sent into history.

As poverty is a form of violence inflicted on people that leads to violence forced onto others, poverty cannot be tolerated in a future that includes peace, prosperity and creativity.

It is basic honesty that tells us that we must share to avoid conflict and if we will not share, we can expect strife.

When the need to share is accepted, the care that follows leads to a value system that includes compassion.

As the need for honesty and compassion is found necessary by the rigours of the celestial realm, these values can be described as celestial values.

Space is the New Green

In political terms, space will be the new green, as serious space development will be the only way that we can keep the Earth green.

The green message of space development was clearly stated by O’Neill in the 1970s, quoted above, when he referred to, "a clean energy source, and we will further improve our environment”, but this message was not heard or understood by conservationists at the time.

The people of Earth cannot expect to achieve a better World, when the path taken is clearly not going in that direction.

If we would listen to Albert Einstein when he said, “We can not solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them” we may begin to consider a radical new direction that will actually work in delivering a better World.

Steve Jobs once said in Apple advertising, “Think different.”

If we can begin to “Think different” and find the way to solve all our problems on Earth, what are we waiting for?

In space we can turn over a new leaf on Earth and allow Nature to revive and thrive.

By reaching to the Sun for power, we can expand life beyond Earth and give life from Earth a future among the stars.

The challenge for all people who love the Earth and are passionate about securing a healthy and creative future for all Earth’s children, is to get serious about space development and reach for the stars.

Space is the Way to Peace

Advocates of World peace, if they connect the dots from Earth into space and back again, will see how serious space development will lead to peace on Earth.

Instead of endless conflict over territory, whether in the South China Sea, Palestine or Ukraine, new lands can be created in space for every nation.

Some argue that the drought in Syria is caused by climate change, which is in turn the cause of the civil war there, leading to the rise of the Islamic State and millions of refugees fleeing the country.

In the future that we are heading into, there will be billions of Earth change refugees.

We need to find a better way, lest environmental crisis send conflicts sliding into nuclear madness.

A post-nuclear peace may simply deliver the end of life on Earth.

Planning for Cosmic Survival

By a critical number of people on Earth demanding action and driving investment in serious space development, we can save the Earth, send poverty into history, lead the way into peace and open the way to the stars.

How many people is a critical number that will shift the human bird from the Earthly nest?

Half a million citizens were employed in the Apollo Moon program in the 1960s, but being paid, their interest mostly ended when the work was over.

When O’Neill presented his blueprint for space settlement in the 1970s, a movement of 15,000 people rallied, but that was too few to open the gates to space, or a celestial city would have been built in space by now.

It may take a movement of ten million keen people, or more, to overcome political resistance and roll the human bird out of the Earthly nest.

Such a movement may only need ten empowered individuals who share a vision to begin the ball rolling.

It has oft been said that ten people working as one could change the World.

Are there ten empowered individuals on Earth prepared to work as one and inspire ten million keen people to help launch the stellar economy and build the first celestial city?

Instead of being tormented by climate change gloom, a citizens space initiative striving for a celestial future will have a stellar plan without limits, which everyone on Earth can be invited to be part of.

Space advocates will have a plan that offers hope for all Earth’s children, because any serious space development plan must also include the health of the Earth.

Everyone wants the good life with a smart phone, but this cannot happen for everyone living on Earth now, on a planet with limits to growth that have already been breached.

For everyone on Earth to live the lifestyle of United States citizens, we would need 4 planets like Earth to meet the demand for the good life. [5]

Where can we find another 3 Earths to meet our wishes?

Those planets will not be found on Earth, but the equivalent of many Earths exist beyond Earth, with the resources of the Solar System and the energy of the Sun.

The total focus on Earth for all human dreams, is ultimately the creator of poverty, environmental degradation and war.

Only by expanding beyond Earth and learning to fly among the stars can we win unlimited prosperity, creativity and peace.

Getting Back to the Future

Dangerous Earth changes brought on by clinging to the Earthly nest will not be turned around overnight.

This is because the Earth system is like a super tanker at sea and it takes a long time to stop and turn a super tanker.

We now live with 1C temperature rise, but the science describes how the current level of CO2, passing 400 ppm, will take the World beyond a 2C temperature rise.

Before we begin to turn the carbon crisis, we will be dealing with a hotter world which may have reached 6C temperature rise and have a very dangerous climate.

If the oceans begin to die and release toxic hydrogen sulphide gas, we will be forced to live on Earth as if we are living in space, simply to survive.

How dangerous the Earth becomes and how much damage is wreaked upon life, will depend entirely on how swiftly we rise to the challenge of securing our cosmic survival and winning back a safe planet.

Wally Broecker, an early climate scientist who never did get around to using a computer, gazed into the future that we are baking and declared, “we can no longer expect Mother Nature to take care of us – the planet is ours to run, and we can’t retreat from our responsibility to run it wisely.” [6]

Humankind emerged from Nature through evolution and developed the technology that changed the Earth, but we did not know what we were doing.

If we had begun to expand beyond Earth in the 1970s, when this became possible, our fate now would be entirely different, because we would have secured a stellar civilization with the celestial resources to deal with all problems on Earth.

We can now only imagine what could have been, but imagine we must, as we figure out how to get back to the future.

Earth as a Sacred Place

Space is the way to offer hope, if hope is a gem that is worth sharing.

In a future where people live in cities in the celestial realm, the Earth will be seen as a sacred place, the origin of life and a treasure to really love in the vast ocean of space.

The first of many celestial cities could have been built already and our civilization would be much more advanced, if those with the power to act had acted in the 1970s.

The growth of our civilization has been gravely retarded by clinging to the Earth, but now we can fix this.

We must learn to fly from the Earthly nest and live among the stars, if we really do love the Earth.

If we refuse to leave the nest, we may die as any bird that fails to fly.

As a race, we are living an extended juvenile phase of existence, where we are a danger to ourselves and a threat to life on Earth.

Only by leaving the nest will we find our maturity on the winds of space among the stars.

As mature adults, we can be parental, caring for the Earth and all places in the Universe we venture to.

As mature adults, we can learn to sing among the stars, like whales in the ocean.

As mature adults, we will have a future among the stars.

What are we waiting for?

Race Against Time

Every space launch must now take into account a growing volume of space junk above Earth and as more space launches are happening than ever, the number of objects above Earth is increasing.

From time to time satellites collide, sending pieces of the destroyed satellites flying in all directions like bullets at high velocity.

There is a concern that the day will arrive when two satellites crash into each other and set off a chain reaction of space junk missiles that strike other satellites, resulting in a space junk cascade that destroys all satellites above Earth.

The Australian Government takes this problem so seriously, that they have contributed $150 million to an international effort to avoid the loss of the satellites. [7]

The space junk problem was featured in the science fiction movie ‘Gravity’, which saw a space junk cascade destroy the International Space Station, along with the satellites.

It is predicted that nothing could be sent into space for hundreds of years, if or when a space junk cascade happens.

The event could also be brought on by a near-Earth asteroid hitting a satellite, or global conflict on Earth, where the first target would be the eyes in the sky.

The space junk cascade problem is the consequence of the nations of Earth running space programs for civilian, industrial and military purposes, on the cheap, without any consideration of keeping space clean, or cleaning up space, until now.

Under a space junk cascade sky, falling stars would be bright at night and many high velocity projectiles would reach the surface of the Earth, which may present a threat to humans in the open, as well as cows and other animals.

If nothing will get into space because of high velocity space junk, we must also wonder if there will be a direct threat to all aircraft from speeding space debris zooming in through the atmosphere.

To be trapped on Earth may be the final straw in the loss of human hope, with the stars locked against us.

If human cosmic survival matters, we have a challenge to rise to, by securing a permanent and sustainable industrial presence beyond the space junk zone, which could be the orbit of the Moon, before any space junk cascade may happen.

With an industrial presence beyond Earth that has no limit to expansion, if or when a space junk cascade happens, it could be dealt with from above, as well as below.

Robot Rescue Mission

In the age of robotics, small robots could be used to establish an industrial presence beyond the space junk zone and managed from Earth via remote control systems.

Once a sustainable mini-robot industrial presence was established, our robots could then build human scale spacecraft and orbital space settlements.

A mini-robot space program would be a lot cheaper to run than a human scale endeavor and with the prospect of securing a stellar economy with infinite growth, there is a high value incentive.

A citizens space initiative could rally to such an objective and with vision and determination, make it happen.

Until there is a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, any human activity, even on Mars, will be at risk of falling back to Earth.

Space is the key to our future on Earth and among the stars.

Space can be won, if the people of the Earth decide to make it so.

If the space junk cascade happens and we are trapped on Earth, the challenge will be much greater to keep the vision of the stars alive and be ready for space when the sky above Earth is clear again.

A Message from the Stars

The greatest warning of all for us could be a simple message from the stars.

Cosmologists believe there should be thousands of alien civilizations in our Milky Way Galaxy and many should have reached the Solar System, but they look out among the stars and see no sign of life or any alien civilization.

This is a deep puzzle for scientists who wonder, where is ET?

If our experience on Earth is anything to go by and life emerges on planets in similar ways, we must consider that alien civilizations frequently emerge, burn their fossil fuel reserves for too long and bring on their own carbon apocalypse.

As environmental catastrophe strikes and dangerous climate change wreaks havoc, their own geopolitics may slide into nuclear madness to finish them off, even end life on their planet.

If this is the message in the silence from the stars, we really do need to slam the brakes on and have a deep think about our direction.

Our cosmic survival may now hinge on what we decide.

If we succeed and travel to the stars, we may find the evidence of failed civilizations on dead planets.

If we succeed, we may well find ourselves alone, but alive.

Our success may depend on the value that we place on life.

The fate of all Earth’s children is now in our hands.

What will we decide?


The concepts raised in this article were first explored in my 2006 document, ‘Creating a Solar Civilization’, which was revised in 2012 ~

How the future was avoided is explored in my article,  ‘A Deeper Level of Denial’ ~

Recent research from James Hansen ~ includes a film ~
World-Renowned Climate Scientist Makes Dire Warning About Sea Level Rise, Storms’
Jacqueline Howard, 22 Mar 2016, The Huffington Post


[1]   ‘Carbon emissions rate 'highest in 66 million years'
ABC Science Online, 22 Mar 2016'highest-in-66-million-years'/7266032

[2]   'Antarctica’s ice is being carved up from below’
Chris Mooney, 14 Mar 2016, The Washington Post ~

[3]   Permian–Triassic extinction event ~ also called the Great Dying ~
see the section on hydrogen sulphide emissions ~–Triassic_extinction_event

[4]   ‘Climate report: 2015 ‘shattered’ temperature records around the world’
Sara Phillips, 22 Mar 2016, ABC News Online

[5]   ‘How many Earths do we need?’
Charlotte McDonald, 16 Jun 2015, BBC News  

[6]   ‘Fixing Climate’ by Robert Kunzig and Wallace Broecker, Green Profile, 2008, page 269.

[7]   ‘New Australian Research Centre to remove space junk, save satellites and spacecraft’
Carl Smith and Chris Kimball, 11 Mar 2014, ABC News Online





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Great Barrier Reef coral bleaching at 95 per cent in northern section, aerial survey reveals
Peter McCutcheon, 28 Mar 2016, ABC News Online
"An aerial survey of the northern Great Barrier Reef has shown that 95 per cent of the reefs are now severely bleached — far worse than previously thought. Professor Terry Hughes, a coral reef expert based at James Cook University in Townsville who led the survey team, said the situation is now critical. "This will change for Great Barrier Reef forever," Professor Hughes told 7.30. "We're seeing huge levels of bleaching in the northern thousand-kilometre stretch of the Great Barrier Reef.”"
"Professor Justin Marshall, a reef scientist from the University of Queensland, said the reason for these bleaching events was clear. "What we're seeing now is unequivocally to do with climate change," he told 7.30. "The world has agreed, this is climate change, we're seeing climate change play out across our reefs.””
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