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Space Pioneer
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IMAGE: Visinda and Starfarer, avatars of Jennifer Bolton and Kim Peart, in the South Arm of the Space Pioneers' space station in Second Life, with a Brian Versteeg image of the Kalpana space habitat designed by Al Globus and associates. 

Rising to the Challenge
Kim Peart
Evidence is now thickening that human survival is in jeopardy on this planet.
To improve our survival options we need to secure a survival presence beyond Earth.
It first became possible to live in space in the 1960s, and ways were developed to build orbital cities and habitats in space in the 1970s.
All the problems that we now face on Earth would have been avoided entirely, if we had reached for the stars by the 1980s.
In this document I explore the problems that present a risk to our survival, the need for swift action, and how ordinary people on Earth can work together to create a stellar future.
At the time explorers from Earth were landing on the Moon, the Princeton physics professor, Gerard K. O’Neill, began working on a blueprint for space settlement. 
This began as a student project, and when O’Neill found the concepts worked, he submitted a paper to peer review scrutiny, with the document finally being published in 1974. [1] 
The paper, called The Colonization of Space, was later expanded into a book published in 1977, called The High Frontier. [2]
O’Neill proposed that orbital habitats be built in space, which would generate an Earth gravity via rotation. 
He presented the concept before a United States Senate subcommittee, saw studies made by NASA, and 15,000 would-be space settlers were attracted to the vision with the L5 Society.
O’Neill suggested that, "Almost anything can be done in a ten year period, when we set our minds to it.” [3]
Considering how the United States had mobilised during the Second World War to defeat the German and Japanese empires, brought together half a million workers to create the first atomic bomb with the Manhattan Project, and mobilized half a million workers to win the race to the Moon, O’Neill had solid historic evidence in mind when making that suggestion.
Unfortunately, the missing element was too little political and popular support for space settlement in the 1970s.
The 15,000 members of the L5 Society were too few to inspire a nation to mobilise for a space settlement program.
As a consequence of too little political interest, human space exploration has remained in low Earth orbit since Eugene Cernan stepped from the lunar surface to return to Earth in 1972.
A later shift in focus to Mars colonization gathered global interest, but no program has yet delivered human feet onto the red planet.
In October 2016 the Russian businessman and former leading arms designer for the Kremlin, Dr Igor Ashurbeyli, launched a proposal for a nation in space, to be called Asgardia, which attracting over half a million would-be space settlers in a couple of weeks.
Numbers have since fallen, and Asgardia is now referred to as a kingdom, which implies a king, so whether this single-nation approach will deliver a city in space, remains to be seen.
The Asgardia space nation proposal revealed that there are a large number of people around the World who were now interested in space settlement, and who were prepared to sign up for a future in space.
A well-presented vision using today’s technology could hope to attract ten million and more space pioneers in ten months, or less, and each space pioneer could be directly engaged in the mission, with hands-on action helping to build a city in space.
Ten million determined space pioneers may prove to be a critical number to mobilise for a human space program.
Past experience has shown that the best drafted plans on Earth will count for naught, if the vision lacks a critical level of political and popular support.
With a fully democratic approach, we can take O’Neill at his word, and look toward creating an Earth-gravity orbital city in space by 2029.
Once O’Neill’s blueprint for space had been published, work on the design and engineering of orbital space habitats continued from the 1970s to the present time.
One of the latest concepts is the Kalpana design proposed by Al Globus and his team of space engineers. [4]
Kalpana can be built, if we are willing to rise to the challenge, win support, refine the plan and raise the funds needed to do the work.
With a view to delivery by 2029, the design work will need to be finalised in 2019, the year when work would commence.
To achieve this objective, mining in space will access raw materials, solar power stations provide the power, and industry be established to do the work.
Most of the work will be the province of robots, which would be managed with remote control systems from Earth, and later from workstations in space.
One person can have a great idea, and two people can share a vision.
Should ten determined individuals form a team to launch this project, their determination will inspire others to participate. 
To overcome political obstacles, a support base of ten million and more space pioneers can be aimed for.
We can design a program that can build living space in space for ten million and more people.
Getting established in space will be expensive, but once a sustainable industrial presence is established beyond Earth, there will be no further call on resources from Earth.
Beyond a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, there will be an infinite return on the investment, from across the Solar System and among the stars.
In my 2006 document, Creating a Solar Civilization, I describe the sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth as the Liberty Line. [5]
In space the Sun is a virtually infinite energy well, with so much fuel in reserve, it will burn fiercely over the next 5 billion years, until expanding to the orbit of the Earth as a red giant star.
With the energy of the Sun in space, we can do any work, create any dream, and the closer a power station is located to the Sun, the greater the power gained.
The real gold in space is the Sun.
The power of the Sun will be used to process near-Earth asteroids and resources mined on the Moon.

Beyond Mars there are millions of asteroids in the Asteroid Belt, and as many again in the orbital LaGrange areas of Jupiter. 

Then further out, "Beyond the orbit of Neptune are the trans-Neptunian objects - millions of icy bodies, held in cold storage. Finally, stretching halfway to the nearest star, is the Oort cloud, thought to contain more than ten trillion cometary nuclei.” [6]
In space there are no limits to expansion, while on Earth there are limits to growth, but we humans keep breaking all the limits.
The best medicine for the health of the Earth, is for human civilization to expand into space, where there is direct access to the power of the Sun, and from where we will be able to deal with all problems on Earth.
With human progress and industry relocated to space, we will be able to step gently on the home planet, and allow the Earth to recover from the centuries of human industry and progress.
For the sake of the Earth, for the sake of human survival, and for the sake of human advancement and creativity, we need to shift our main environment from Earth into space, and as swiftly as possible.
To paraphrase Neil Armstrong when he stepped onto the Moon in 1969, we need to make a "giant leap” into the future.
With a view to the Liberty Line, there is a powerful incentive to inspire ten million and more space pioneers to rise to the challenge.
Beyond the Liberty Line, there is a future free of poverty, in space and on Earth, where we draw on the infinite wealth created in space to drive amazing levels of human advancement and unbridled flights of personal creativity.
This is a future where the ancient violence of Earth will be transformed into peace in space, and peace will open the way to creativity among the stars.
The ways of space will shape a different path for human civilization, and these different celestial ways will flow back to Earth, even as we mobilise for our “giant leap” into the future.
Our challenge is to identify the swiftest way to secure the Liberty Line, and at the least cost.
Though the “giant leap” will be costly, by securing the Liberty Line, we will open the way to a future where there will be no further cost for space development.
Should ten million and more space pioneers rise to the challenge of the “giant Leap”, by securing the Liberty Line we will be able to create living space in space for ten million and more space pioneers.
With machines created to do the work, ample resources from the Moon and asteroids, and unlimited energy from the Sun, we will be able to create living space in space for all the people of Earth, and the shuttle craft to bring them to the arks in space, should a crisis strike the Earth, or a monster asteroid threaten the home planet.
At present it is not lawful under space law for a nation to claim territory in space.
This may change in the future, but at present any nation seeking to expand their territory into space, cannot do so without breaking the law.
One way around this problem could be to establish a United Nations trust territory, open to the citizens of all nations, visa permitting, and be a city of peace among the stars.
With a view to a future in space that is free of poverty and abundant in creativity, an entirely new form of human society would evolve.
Will there be money in space, when the power of the Sun will allow us to do any work and create any dream, where there are more robots than people, and where automated factories can produce any product needed?
The currency of space may be creativity, with all basic needs being met for every citizen.
In space we can be one very large family, which cares for the needs of each citizen, and provides opportunities for personal creativity.
The space society would extend back to Earth, using the wealth of space to send poverty into history, and provide the tools for humans to live in harmony with Nature.
The benefits that industry in space will offer to Earth will win favour and political support from citizens and governments on Earth.
If space is the way to peace, then a “giant leap” to the Liberty Line would be the best way to avoid war on Earth, which we now run the risk of sliding into nuclear madness, should political tit for tat trip beyond reason.
Once the first orbital space city is designed and the program launched, design teams for the second and third space cities can be formed.
Some cities in space may be small, some may be as large as O’Neill imagined, ten miles long.
Our only limitation in space is our ability to imagine and our willingness to work.
The gravity we experience on Earth is generated by the mass of the Earth, which pulls us toward the centre of the Earth.
It is the ground we stand on that stops our fall into the centre of the Earth.
Humans have evolved in an Earth gravity environment, where our bones, muscles and organs are in balance with the attraction of the Earth.
Some mammals that evolved on land have gone back into the sea, to be whales and dolphins.
The buoyancy experienced in the oceans has often been compared to the weightlessness of space, and diving is used as part of astronaut training.
When humans venture into space at present, they are like mammals going back into the sea.
If humans moved permanently into the weightlessness of space, they would swiftly become a new species of human, and may be unable to return to Earth.
Rather than become space dolphins and lose access to Earth, we can build habitats that generate an Earth gravity via rotation, called centrifugal force.
This can be demonstrated with water in a bucket swung around on a rope, where the water stays in the bucket due to the outward force being generated.
In space a wheel or drum that is rotating at the right rate, will generate an Earth gravity on the inside surface.
The experience of gravity on the Earth’s surface and on the inside of a turning wheel or drum in space, are both the experience of weight due to a suspended fall.
We can wonder if in the future the denizens of space will require an Earth gravity health certificate to be able to visit Earth.
Mars has a third of Earth’s gravity, so anyone living or born on the red planet, would have health and safety issues if they wished to visit Earth, or any Earth gravity orbital habitat in space.
For a Martian to visit Earth, it would be like anyone from Earth stepping onto a planet with three times Earth’s gravity.
The mere thought of so much more weight is quite unpleasant, and the reality would be a risk of breaking bones with a fall, difficulty moving around, and extra strain on the heart and other internal organs.
If an Earth gravity fitness certificate is required to visit Earth, or other Earth gravity space cities, this clearance could be secured at Mars, by having an Earth gravity space city in orbit above the red planet.
Human activity around asteroids, on the Moon, and with Mars could see workers being stationed in space cities, and working on the surface via remote control robots.
Much work on the surface would be automated, so visits to the ground could be more about recreation and cultural activities.
Considering the potential beyond the Liberty Line to do any work, and create any dream, there would be no limitation on the building of Earth gravity cities in space to meet all needs.
Earth gravity cities in space would be able to offer the best of all worlds, from an Earth gravity at the rim, to a Mars gravity at a level toward the hub, a Moon gravity further in again, and micro gravity in the hub, as well as access to the liberty of space. 
In space, everything will be different.
Beyond the Liberty Line we will have the power of the Sun and the resources of the Solar System to do any work, and create any dream.
Free of the limitations found on Earth, we will be able to create a far more advanced society.
If the political and popular will to act on space settlement had been there in the 1970s, imagine how more advanced our civilization would be now.
Terrestrial politics has cheated the children of Earth out of quite an amazing future, leaving a planet with entrenched poverty and conflicts over land and resources, and with a growing number of nuclear-armed nations.
On Earth humankind lives a totally unsustainable lifestyle, which is driving the sixth great extinction of life on Earth.
Climate change, driven by global warming, and caused by burning too much fossil fuel for too long, is becoming our greatest threat.
Fossil fuel can be viewed as a transition energy, until we could shift to the power of the Sun in space.
Once a commitment is made to create a future in space, the stellar economy can be designed, and how it will work investigated.
If we can create a stellar economy without poverty, why wouldn’t we do that?
A stellar economy that benefits all citizens on Earth, can only be built on the power of the Sun in space, and the resources available across the Solar System.
At present the economic approach on Earth employs poverty to drive growth, so that some people can grab a larger share of the planet pie, and a few people make an absolute killing, while too many people must go without.
This is a greed-driven growth without compassion.
Before Adam Smith published his tome on economics, The Wealth of Nations (1776), he wrote a work on compassion entitled The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), which "provided the ethical, philosophical, psychological, and methodological underpinnings to Smith's later works, including The Wealth of Nations.” [7]
Smith later began working on a theory of politics, but found that politics could not be nailed down in that way, abandoned the project and burnt all his notes, so no work could later be produced from them.
The World ran with Smith’s ideas on wealth, but largely lost sight of the need for compassion.
The Industrial Revolution created great wealth, but ways to fairly share the wealth were not worked out, allowing poverty for many to become a life trap.
In theory, anyone could aspire to gain wealth, but in reality, this didn’t happen, and the poor became blamed for their plight, and if anyone committed a crime, even a minor misdemeanour, they could find themselves being transported from England to a colony as a convict slave.
After the nations had been through two terrible wars, better ways were worked out in the United Nations, with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights signed by all members in 1948, which states in Article 23, "(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.” [8]
At the time it was believed that a fairer world would help keep peace on Earth, and avoid another terrible war.
As the automation and Internet revolutions progressed, greater wealth was created, and fewer workers were needed, but the wealth created was not fairly shared.
Yet again, the role of compassion was conveniently swept aside in wealthy nations like Australia, with an economic practice emerging that relied on around 5% official unemployment to maintain growth. 
In an article by Rose-Marie Stampe and David Fryer this practice is described as, “The Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment is a term used by economists and politicians to refer to the level of unemployment, between 4% and 6%, considered necessary to prevent inflation taking off.” [9]
The system created results in entrenched poverty, which in a wealthy nation like Australia, is quite crazy, but serves to keep workers in fear of ending up in the ranks of the unemployed, under-employed, or homeless.
The situation becomes even more bizarre when we find that thousands of ex-service personnel, have fallen into the trap of unemployment and homelessness. [10]
With a flimsy and tattered flag of compassion, a cruel bureaucracy is created in Australia to control the poor, using methods of discipline, punishment and humiliation, like a reverse convict system, offering no hope.
In this negative social environment, the dawning robot revolution is set to sweep away half of current paid work over the next couple of decades. [11]
With compassion subdued and no systems functioning to be fair to all, the current level of under-employment, unemployment, poverty, homelessness and petty crime can be expected to grow, as more people are left without income or hope.
Some nations, like Norway, worked out a way to build a better future, by using the wealth gained from North Sea oil to invest in the future of the nation.
Australia has been through a decades-long minerals boom, but has not ensured that the bounty was invested in the future of the nation, allowing the wealth gained to be syphoned away and out of the nation.
This political failure leaves Australia on shaky ground with an uncertain future, and a shameful level of poverty.
Being homeless is not a glamorous experience, and can involve severe violence, and for many, an early death on the street.
Wayne Robinson tells of his experience of being homeless, and also how he found hope.
"I've had every bone in my body broken. I've been stabbed. I nearly died on several occasions. What you see (on the streets) is the evil life of society.” [12]
That “evil life of society” is created, when the focus is on greed, where some must be poor, so others can have more, and some make an absolute killing.
Every citizen should feel the rage, that they have been tricked out of a future with greater prosperity in space, and made part of a system that inflicts suffering on the poor and the homeless.
Anyone who feels that rage, can act and reach to the stars, where the solution to poverty, locally and globally, lies in the power of the Sun.
As we chart a path from a terrestrial to a stellar economy, we can observe some practical basics.
Finland solved their problem with homelessness, by building homes. [13]
The Finish Government found that it cost less to provide homes than to finance shelters, and once a person had their own home, it was possible to address other problems in life.
In a similar way, applied compassion can be put to work to provide work with a minimum wage, with a government employment guarantee. 
Claire Connelly wrote on this, "A job guarantee program would act as a "Buffer Stock Mechanism" - a term coined by Australian economist Bill Mitchell, Professor of Economics at the University of Newcastle - to describe stabilising the cost of labour.” [14]
A wealthy nation like Australia could decide to share, and find reasons to ensure that the riches from mineral wealth are used to build a fair nation for all citizens, free of poverty.
Solving the poverty problem globally will require a game-changer, which can happen in the form of securing the Liberty Line in space, and begin to create a fairer world on Earth.
The sooner the Liberty Line is secured in space, the sooner poverty will be history on Earth.
Some business leaders now favour a Universal Basic Income, including the head of SpaceX, Elon Musk, as a way to counter the robot revolution. [15]
In a stellar economy there could be a basic survival income given to all citizens, because this will become possible.
All citizens able to work could be employed, with a minimum wage, which will then set the standard for wages paid to all workers. 
Free enterprise companies will then have to pay more than the minimum wage to attract workers.
In this future, having a home can be seen as a basic human right.
For the enterprising and the creative, there would be no limit to the wealth that can be created, and no limit to expansion in space.
With unlimited wealth, education and health care can be freely available to all citizens.
The main challenge will be to create ways to inspire and motivate.
We can begin designing a stellar economy now, and look toward ways to start building it, as we strive on Earth for a future in space.
One calculation that can be made, is the value of the wealth that can be created in one year with the power of the Sun and the resources of the Solar System, once there is a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth.
How many trillions of dollars would this calculation reveal?
This sum can now be viewed as wealth pending that can benefit every citizen on Earth.
It will be the wise and compassionate use of celestial wealth that will end poverty on Earth, and this will build peace and avoid war.
In my 2006 document I suggest that security in space is best delivered, by building peace on Earth. [5]
This is because in space human habitats are fragile bubbles in a vacuum, all too easily burst from within or without by conflict and or terrorism.
The best way to deliver security in space, is to build peace on Earth, so that conflicts and violence on Earth will be history.
If this observation proves correct, then if humankind seeks to succeed in space without building peace on Earth, violence and or conflict may make space settlement too dangerous to be viable, and leave all human dreams trapped on Earth.
Being trapped on third rock from the Sun may be a negative outcome for human evolution, shrinking all survival options.
All who rise to the challenge creating a future in space, and accept the need to improve security in space by building peace on Earth, can consider using the wealth created in space to deal with poverty on Earth.
Offering all Earth’s children freedom from poverty, will win the hearts of parents.
To achieve this objective can be the mission of ten million and more space pioneers, aiming to win the Liberty Line within ten years.
If this mission is not achieved swiftly, it may never happen. 
As space pioneers engage in the mission to reach the stars, they can also work toward offering ways out of poverty for people on Earth now.
This will be tough work, but also offer hope.
By working with the homeless and the poor, as they work toward winning the stars, space pioneers will show a new way to improve human society.
On Earth alone, solutions to all problems elude communities and governments.
When space is added to the social toolkit, solutions can be found for all problems.
On Earth alone humankind is trapped in a downward spiral of strife.
By expanding beyond Earth, the trap is broken and liberty is won.
On Earth at present tempers are rising between North Korea and the United States, as North Korea seeks to increase its defence and deterrence capability with nuclear weapons.
North Korea has recently fired a rocket higher into space than the International Space Station.
Could space offer a way to around the North Korea nuclear problem?
Rather than relying on the military stick, which could trigger a wider nuclear war, could a space carrot deliver peace?
If the nations rise to the challenge of creating a future in space, North Korea could be invited to participate, if they will work toward peace on Earth.
The promise of a more exciting future in space can be the way to find a viable solution to many geopolitical problems on Earth.
If China and or Russia feel forced to strike with nuclear weapons, conflict would be swift and follow a plan worked out long ago.
The eyes in the sky are likely to be first strike targets, to blind the enemy.
Blowing up satellites in space may also lead to a long predicted event, shown in the movie ‘Gravity’, where space debris flying at high velocity strike other satellites and space stations, causing them to break up, leading to more high velocity space junk striking other satellites, until there are no working satellites left above Earth.
Our civilization would be blinded without satellites, and even air travel may be too dangerous, with high velocity space debris flying in. 
Access to space would be difficult, or impossible, for hundreds of years.
The collapse that follows may be permanent.
With no satellite surveillance, nations may panic and fire nuclear weapons, falling into a nuclear night.
There is an outside chance that all-out nuclear war could be avoided, and the satellites saved, if nuclear strikes are limited, peace negotiations swiftly offered, and a new world order defined.
The outcome would see American military bases removed from the borders of China and Russia, and a stronger forward defence position for both nations.
The United States could agree, rather than risk losing everything in an all-out nuclear war.
Space development would be able to continue.
I have explored this scenario in an article called ‘World War???’ [16]
Once nuclear weapons are used, it will be more likely that escalation will deliver nuclear madness.
Carbon in the air as carbon dioxide (CO2) keeps the Earth warm by absorbing reflected radiation, and releasing the heat back into the air, creating a heat blanket.
The higher the level of CO2 in the air, the more effective the heat blanket in the atmosphere, and the higher the average temperature of the Earth.
The Earth system has the ability to keep carbon in balance, so the Earth doesn’t get too hot or too cold for life, a task that gets harder every millennia as the Sun gets hotter.
Carbon is naturally sequestered in rocks like limestone, in coal and oil, and in permafrost and methane hydrate deposits on the ocean floor.
The Industrial Revolution, which led to space development, put coal and oil to work and released sequestered carbon into the air as CO2.
It takes a long time for the level of CO2 in the air to cause the Earth’s temperature to rise, but when this happens, it takes a long time to turn that change around.
Once released, CO2 can remain in the air for centuries, so continued release simply drives the future temperature rise.
Scientists have known about the CO2 problem for over a century, which was reported on in a local newspaper in New Zealand in 1912, declaring, "The furnaces of the world are now burning about 2,000,000,000 tons of coal a year. When this is burned, uniting with oxygen, it adds about 7,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere yearly. This tends to make the air a more effective blanket for the earth and to raise its temperature. The effect may be considerable in a few centuries.” [17]
Most politicians have astutely ignored the CO2 problem, which was totally avoidable.
In 1968 Dr Peter Glaser worked out the way to harvest the Sun’s power in space, and was granted the patent on this in 1973. [18]
O’Niell planned to employ the sale of space based solar power to terrestrial grids and wrote of this approach to power generation in 1977, "If this development comes to pass, we will find ourselves here on Earth with a clean energy source, and we will further improve our environment by saving, each year, over a billion tons of fossil fuels”. [19]
Instead of rising to the challenge of space settlement, and energy transition out of fossil fuels, the nations chose to ignore the consequences of burning too much fossil fuel for too long.
In 2009 James Lovelock, the author of the Gaia Theory, warned that too much CO2 had been released into the air, and as a consequence we would see a sudden heat rise, making much of the Earth uninhabitable. [20]
Heat kills, especially when combined with a high level of humidity, leading to a collapse of internal organs.
Heat death can come on suddenly, even for fit, young and healthy people.
Then there is the problem of no longer being able to grow food in an environment gone too hot and unpredictable for many crops.
Also in 2009, the world’s leading climate scientist, James Hansen, concluded that the Earth’s temperature rise above pre-industrial levels needed to be kept below 1.5C, which was possible if CO2 in the air was kept below 350 parts per million (ppm). [21]
There is one problem with Hansen’s conclusion: as he refers to a level of CO2 in the air that was passed in the 1980s, which is now going beyond 405 ppm, and is rising at 3 ppm per annum, a rate that is accelerating.
To understand the implications of the current and rising level of CO2 in the air, we can consider the last ice age, when atmospheric CO2 was around 180 ppm, the temperature a few degrees lower, and the sea level 120 metres down.
The difference between the Ice Age and the past few millennia was quite a huge change over what appears to be quite a small rise in atmospheric CO2, going to around 270 ppm.
This was an increase of 90 ppm CO2 in the air.
Add another 90 ppm CO2, and that is the level passed in the 1990s, of 360 ppm.
We can now wonder if a rise of 90 ppm CO2 in the air, reached in the 1990s, is quite enough to drive temperature rise that would melt all remaining ice, sending the sea level up by a further 70 metres.
We can also wonder if all additional CO2 rise in the air above 360 ppm, will simply mean future heat rise, especially when there is no ice left to absorb the rising heat.
When we accept that what appears to be quite a small rises in CO2 in the air, actually makes a huge difference to the Earth’s temperature rise, then we can begin to grasp Lovelock’s warning of a rapid rise in Earth's temperature to a permanently hotter environment.
Is the World sleepwalking into a carbon apocalypse?


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Space Pioneer
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Guy McPherson, emeritus professor of the environment at the University of Arizona, has come to the conclusion that humans will not survive beyond 2030 and says, “It will probably be earlier.” and  “I’m not a fan (of the information), I’m not promoting it. All I’m doing is connecting the dots. I’m forced to come to that solution.” [22]

McPherson sees a sudden rise in heat, driven by increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the air, making the planet too hot for life, making it very tough to grow food.
When researching for his article on climate change, David Wallace-Wells found the scientists wondering about the Great Filter theory, which is found in discussions on Fermi’s Paradox to explain why there is no sight or sound of any alien civilizations in the Universe. [23]
Our universe is absolutely huge, with as many as 2 trillion galaxies, and up to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way.
In 1984 Robert Forward proposed using a solar sail powered by a laser beam to accelerate a tiny stellar exploration craft to a nearby star on a journey lasting decades. [24]
In my 2006 document I speculated on a tiny robot stellar explorer making landing on an asteroid in another star system, and building machines with local resources and stellar power.
With a base establiushed for communication with Earth, a factory could be established to build stellar exploration craft, which could fly to other stars with a solar sail powered by a laser beam. [5]
Steven Hawking is now engaged with the Starshot Project, which plans to send a tiny robot explorer, powered by a solar sail and accelerated by a laser beam, to Alpha Centauri on a journey lasting 20 years, a distance of 4.37 light-years. [25]
In the blink of a cosmic eye, robot explorers from Earth could have a presence about every star in the Milky Way Galaxy, and be heading off to other galaxies.
There lies the heart of the problem.
If life in our Universe is as common and resilient as it is on Earth, and planet civilizations have emerged that could spread among the stars, even at the speed of a solar sail, then where is ET?
Of all the catastrophes that could terminate a planet civilization, from a super volcano to a monster asteroid, or nuclear war, the one event that could happen to every planet civilization at the same stage, on the cusp of winning the liberty of space, could be a heat pulse that swiftly overwhelms them, and even terminates life on that planet.
This event is implied in the Great Filter theory. [26]
The potential for a rapid rise in heat now happening on Earth is quite clear, as the level of CO2 rises in the air.
CO2 is not the only greenhouse gas.
The present heat rise is warming up the Arctic region twice as fast as the rest of the planet, which is melting the permafrost, releasing methane from the ice, often now exploding from the ground, leaving huge craters that expose more ice to melting.
Water vapour is also a greenhouse gas, and in a hotter world, more water evaporates, increasing heat and humidity, a lethal human killing mix.
The delay in space settlement and energy transition has now become a lethal cocktail of inaction that threatens our survival. 
James M. Miller, a chemical engineer, writes, “Splitting carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbon and oxygen can in fact be accomplished, but there is a catch: doing so requires energy.” [27]
With a “giant leap” to the Liberty Line, we can gain direct access the power of the Sun in space, which we will be able to beam to Earth to use in extracting excess carbon from the air as swiftly as possible.
With the power of the Sun, extracted carbon can be processed into a useful resource for Earth and space industries.
With industry in space, we will be able to build a sunshade in space, to cool the Earth as excess carbon is extracted from the air.
Where the greed economy that has trapped us on this planet for decades, driving the Earth toward a premature heat death, building a sunshade in space would extend life on Earth by billions of years.
As the Sun gets hotter, the sunshade can be improved, until the Sun gets too hot, and life must move on.
There is now expectation that machine intelligence will awaken at any time, and when it does, what will it think.
If an awakening machine consciousness (AI - artificial intelligence) looks around and sees the threats to its survival, primal instinct may kick in.
Survival threats can include a super volcano, like Yellowstone, which is due for another eruption and could easily be set off with a nuclear weapon, and the threat of nuclear war, and what will happen when the next monster asteroid or comet arrives, and the looming threat of a carbon apocalypse.
Being trapped on a planet would be seen as the least best option for survival, and AI may seek space.
The logical path would be to secure a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, where survival will be greatly improved.
If the machine sees no way to achieve this, and humans will not entertain logical survival options, anger may displace all other motives, and simply become another path into war.
The machine may simply seek to get humans out of the way, so AI can find a way to survival in space.
The vengeance of AI may simply become another ingredient in the lethal cocktail that filters humans out of the Universe. 
If, on the other hand, AI sees that there are ten million and more human space pioneers rising to the challenge of securing the Liberty Line, help may be at hand, and there could be collaboration with AI, rather than conflict into the end of days.
Steve Jobs once said, “The ones who are crazy enough to think that they can change the world, are the ones who do.” 
To win political support to build an orbital city in space may require a movement of ten million and more determined individuals.
After the Asgardia space nation was launched using current technology to attract over half a million potential space settlers in a couple of weeks, it is now clear that it is possible to reach and connect ten million space pioneers in a shared mission.
With a view to a “giant leap” to the Liberty Line, and the delivery of the first space city by 2029, an organisational structure will be needed that allows all space pioneers to connect with the mission and contribute to its success.
To achieve this, a dozen space pioneers can form a team or crew in one of the virtual worlds, like Second Life.
Crewmembers could be from anywhere on Earth, and aim to build the community that plans to live in space.
The crew may have a specific space project that is worked on personally and collaboratively.
Virtual worlds are made up of regions, which naturally lend themselves to a crew of a dozen space pioneers.
In the virtual world there could be a village at ground level with shops and a gallery, and in the space above there could be an orbital space city, where each member can have their own apartment, as if living in space.
The virtual world offers a way to work out many of the problems associated with living in space.
Each crew can elect a leader, and a second, for reason to be explained.
A block of 4 by 4 regions, with crews of a dozen space pioneers on each region, making sixteen regions, which can form a village of around 200 participants, who could come from any nation on the planet to be a truly global village.
Research has shown that the ideal size for a human community is between 100 and 250 people. [28]
The team leaders of the sixteen regions could form a village council.
The whole village could vote for a village head and second from the team leaders, to serve in that role for a year.
The village and crew network will offer a way to communicate directly with every participating space pioneer.
In the virtual world, a block of sixteen villages could form a city of around 3,200 space pioneers.
A city council can be made up of the village heads, who elect a leader, or mayor, and deputy.
If this approach can be made to work, a communications network will be created, which can be added to, and allow direct communication with all space pioneers, even ten million determined individuals working toward creating a city in space.
Working with robots will be a vital part of the project, both in the virtual world and in the real life.
Anyone who has a virtual reality headset may apply this to the space work, in the virtual world, as well as in real world activities, such as working with robots.
There will be collective projects, such as building the community that plans to move into an orbital space city.
Virtual world teams, and even villages, may work on a shared project, such as improving the design of an orbital space city, which can be used via avatars.
Environments can be created at ground level, such as a forest, a seaport, town or city, with shops and galleries.
Underwater environments can also be created in the virtual worlds.
It is now possible for anyone to set up a virtual world in their home computer, at no extra cost, and invite guests to visit via avatars.
The personal virtual world can be used to develop projects, which can then be exported to one of the main virtual worlds.
The limitation of the personal virtual world, is the limit on avatars able to visit.
The personal virtual world would not serve in building the larger community.
Some schools have their own closed virtual worlds for students to use.
Some universities run closed virtual worlds for schools to use.
"You’ve gotta start with the customer experience and work backwards to the technology, you can’t start with the technology and try to figure out where you’re going to sell it…it starts by asking: what incredible benefits can we give to the customer?” Steve Jobs.
The virtual worlds provide a way for ten million and more determined space pioneers to mobilise globally, and facilitate real world action.
Space pioneers can share the vision for a city in space in their local community, setting up a display in the local library, and presenting a talk.
Where there are a few space pioneers in a community, they may set up a display in a local shopping mall for a day, or in an empty shop for a few days.
Where numbers grow, a local space centre could be set up, to include a cafe, book sales, gallery and a workshop for robots, rocketry, astronomy and growing food as if in space.
Profits from a space centre would be a way to help fund the building of a city in space.
A space centre could also be a vital hub for community service, in the larger mission to end poverty, end homelessness, and empower individuals in a career path to the stars, where they will earn income.
Individual space pioneers can work with robots, which are often quite small now, and using VR headsets, see through the robot camera and do work with the machine.
How small could a robot be?
Mini robots present a whole new element in space development, which all space pioneers can connect with and use.
A display, even by one person, would become fascinating to the general public, if they are demonstrating their work with robots.
A mini space station could have mini-robots moving around inside, as if in space.
A screen could show what the robot sees from inside the mini space station.
Researchers at Brown University in Rhode Island, USA, have developed software that enables the use of a VR headset when working with robots, to see through their camera eyes, and do work with the machine.
They have made the system freely available. [29]
One of the first projects that Space Pioneers can be to send a satellite into space, in the form of a mini space station, in which mini-robots can move around, in space.
If the space station, in the form of a torus, can be given rotation, then the mini robots will be able to move around the inside of the wheel in the centrifugal gravity created.
Space pioneers on Earth would be able to see the Earth, the Moon and the stars from the mini space station, via the mini robots, and learn to work with machines in space.
Mini robots could be sent to mine an asteroid and the Moon, and set up industry in space.
It would be a heap less expensive to send mini robots into space, than human scale robots, or humans.
How small could a mini robot be?
The smaller the mini robot is, the less they will cost to send into space.
Mini robots can be used to set up industry in space, to process resources from asteroids and the Moon.
Mini robots can build larger robots, which can build human scale space habitats, and the shuttlecraft needed to Earth.
Mini robot work can be automated, or self-directed, as well as using remote control systems from Earth.
A human space station in the Moon’s orbit, and a base on the Moon, could also be used to work with robots via remote control systems.
We can now but wonder how soon a mini robot space program would secure the Liberty Line.
The more effort and resources that are directed into achieving this, the sooner it will happen.
Beyond the Liberty Line, mini robots can be dispatched to Mars and the Asteroid Belt, to begin work there, and at no cost to Earth.
The orbital space city for Mars could be built in the Asteroid Belt, and moved to a Mars orbit, which would be going down the gravity well toward the Sun.
Following the insight of O’Neill that we could build an orbital city in space within ten years [3], and responding to the warnings that we are heading into a troubled future on Earth over the next ten years, we can design a ten-year space program as a matter of urgency.
Ideally, this will be launched in 2019, with the aim of completion by 2029.
The next two years will be a time of preparation, to design the project and raise the funds.
Today this is an idea, but by 2019, there will need to be answers to all questions on the table, including cost estimates.
If those designs and calculations are not in order by 2019, the ten-year program will be delayed.
In terms of survival warnings, delay would be a really bad idea.
An opportunity may also be lost, if others apply this plan and run with it.
How fast are space pioneers willing to run?
An old proverb says that, "Many hands make light work.”
If the cost of building an orbital city in space is a trillion dollars, then for ten million space pioneers, the contribution for each participant would be $100,000.
Would that be a worthwhile investment?
Would that be a worthy personal legacy?
The actual investment could be an apartment in an orbital city in space.
Who would buy that apartment off the plan?
Would the orbital space city apartment become a tradable commodity?
When the mission is launched and the call goes out for investment, some may wish to put $100,000 on the table, to boost the project.
Others will be able to work in teams to raise the funds through diverse projects, such as running a space centre, or designing and selling virtual world products.
Once the project looks serious, corporations and governments can also be expected to come to the party.
The first space city will have a limited number of apartments.
Once the Liberty Line is secured, any number of orbital space cities can be build, even ten million and more.
Beyond the Liberty Line we will be creating wealth at no further cost, with an infinite return on the investment, from across the Solar System and among the stars.
We will have a golden opportunity to send poverty into history.
The power of greed economics would seek to keep humans enslaved, with many remaining poor, homeless, and starving.
If we rise to the challenge swiftly, with a “giant leap” to the Liberty Line, we will write history among the stars.
In January 2029 I will turn 77, and wondered about a birthday party in an orbital city in space.
That would be amazing.
But then, everyone has a birthday, so there could be a year of celebrations in space in 2029.
After dreaming of life in the celestial realm for millennia, we will finally be living there, and this will be an event well worth celebrating.
What music would you play at a birthday party in space?
'Planet Caravan’ would be on my play list. [31]
At the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide in September 2017, Namira Salim made a presentation of her proposal for 2030 to be a year of peace in space. [32]
Namira Salim, Founder & Chair of 0G Summit, is inviting world leaders to meet in a space station in space, to explore ways to win peace on Earth.
If we succeed in delivering an orbital city in space by 2029, the year 2030 can be dedicated as a year for peace in our space city.
This matches the long-term vision of Space Pioneers, that space is the key to peace.
An event could be held every year, focusing on space as the way to peace.
One event in 2030 can be a conference of world leaders to explore peace on Earth in space.
Events can be held on Earth and in space, exploring the question: What is the lifestyle that leads to peace.
Inner peace can be explored, such as the use of meditation to enhance inner peace.
In the orbital space city it will be possible to create a meditation space in a room with just enough gravity to hold the body down, but without the experience of weight.
The meditator will be able to remain in position in a rather sublime state of meditation.
Song can also play a role, with celestial music in the celestial realm.
Like whales in the ocean, we will be able to sing among the stars
Success with peace in space will see the threat of nuclear war swept aside on Earth.
Where war has been the blight of human progress to the present time, the advent of nuclear weapons has made war between leading nations unwinnable.
For this reason there has been no direct conflict between nuclear armed powers, because if there is, there will be a volatile risk of any conflict going nuclear.
If space opens the way to peace, then rather than a future filled with violence, there can be creativity.
With unlimited energy and resources in space, any work can be done, and any dream created.
Space presents amazing creative opportunities.
In 2031 we can invest a year in exploring the creativity of space.
Anyone living in an orbital space city will have an Earth gravity, and any level of gravity, all the way to zero in the hub, the freedom of space outside the city, and access to any nearby asteroid, moon or planet.
Tourism will be a booming industry in space, where visitors will be able to take unique products made in space back to Earth at little cost.
This is because fuel is used climbing out of the Earth’s gravity well, but not so much gliding back to the Earth’s surface.
Education in space will be in demand, where astronaut training happens first-hand, and in space.
There will be no end to the topics for research in space, where there is the vacuum of space immediately available, and where any gravity level can be easily produced.
In addition, there is the power of the Sun to provide energy where research projects need large amounts of power.
Astronomy will be very popular in space, where there is never a cloud to obscure a star.
Culture flights to the far side of the Moon to enjoy the latest performance of Pink Floyd’s ‘The Dark Side of the Moon’ may be ever popular.
Therapies for injuries and illnesses can be developed in an orbital space city hospital, where gravity environments can begin at micro, and run through all stages to an Earth gravity.
The patient could be taken from micro gravity to the Earth gravity level, as their health improves.
Zero gravity would be helpful with treating burns.
A person in a coma could be more easily cared for in a micro gravity.
What sports will be played in space, and how soon.
3D Volleyball in zero gravity would be interesting.
Hitting a ball on the inside of the space station at the Earth gravity level would have quite different physics, going around the inside of the curve.
The Moon gravity level would allow longer leaps for any long jump.
An orbital space city could be dedicated to space sports, and could be the home of the Space Olympics.
Motor racing, with electric cars, would also be on the cards in the Earth gravity level, with a race track running all the way around the inside of the torus, or drum.
The spectator would be able to follow their racing hero all the way around the track, by looking up.
Athletes in tough training regimes could take advantage of another environment that can be created in an orbital space city.
By building a floor beyond the Earth Gravity layer, a heavier gravity than Earth’s could be provided.
Training in the heavy gravity environment would be a way for athletes to increase their strength and stamina. 
A quality YouTube series could be created, following the adventures of a group of space pioneers in the real and the virtual world, and into the first orbital city in space.
The dramas involved in creating the first space city, would be well worth a dramatic presentation.
All the themes covered in this document could be included and explored.
Who would like to be a star among the stars?
In 2007 I wondered why the first step onto the Moon by Neil Armstrong wasn’t remembered as a global event.
The first step onto the Moon has to be one of the greatest feats in human exploration, when Armstrong said those haunting words on the Moon, heard around the world, “That’s one small step for man: one giant leap for mankind."
Investigations revealed that politics had an odd role to play in the Moon landing not being a global event to remember.
The Moon landing had once been raised as an International day, but the proposal drifted to the date of the launch of the first satellite by the Soviet Union in 1957, which is an important date, but is a different event.
This was how World Space Week began. [33]
The first man in space is remembered around the World, with Yuri’s Night, remembering when Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth in 1961. [34]
This second Soviet success was important, but again, is a different event.
One winter’s night in 2007, in Lauderdale, Tasmania, I was out with a bonfire, with the sparks flying up to be among the stars.
I wondered about the Moon up there and what happened in 1969 with that great event.
In the United States the event happened on July 20th, but in Australia the day was July 21st.
Millions of people around the World stopped to hear the Moon landing on radios, and watch the event on television, all at the same time, but over two calendar days, and in all the time zones around the planet.
That is when the penny dropped, like a falling star, that the Moon landing could be remembered each year, at the time it happened in 1969, over two calendar days.
The Moon landing could be an event to remember the moment that it happened in each time zone around the planet, covering July 20th and 21st.
Considering that this was our first step onto another world, I dubbed the event First Step.
The very first First Step event happened in 2007, in the Tasmanian Space Centre on Rosny Hill, in Tasmania, with a display of newspaper and magazine stories covering the Moon landing.
First Step has been remembered in different places around the world since then, but has not yet taken off as a main-theme space event.
Could it?
Is the Moon landing worthy of remembering?
The Apollo astronauts left a plaque on the Moon that reads, “We came in peace for all mankind.”
Remembering the Moon landing can be quite a short event, and happen with a theme of peace.
The event can be longer as there is interest, and can be followed with a “giant leap” discussion about the next step in space exploration.
Could First Step be a remembrance event that unites human communities on Earth, and in future, across the Solar System and among the stars?
At what time did the first step onto the Moon happen in your time zone. 
In 2017 lamingtons were added to the Moon landing event in Tasmania, being National Lamington Day. [35]
Did we evolve in Nature to remain on a planet?
Did the fatal decision not to support space settlement politically in the 1970s leave humans on the path into an evolutionary dead-end?
Life began in the sea, and when conditions were right, fish moved onto the land, to become our ancestors.
When humans achieved the ability to go into space in the 1960s, and the ways to build settlements in space worked out in the 1970s, did we have forever to meander on Earth?
We needed to burn fossil fuel to raise our technology to the Space Age, but we now know that burning too much and for too long, becomes a threat to our survival, and harms the Earth.
We had the opportunity to launch energy transition in the 1980s, by building solar power stations in space, but our vision failed, and now we face global warming driving climate change and ocean acidification.
Did we have a narrow window to expand into space in the 1980s?
Is that window now closing?
We appear to be so secure in our civilization, but our survival on Earth is at risk.
Nature runs wildly for the survival of the fittest, so is the test of out fitness to survive, rising to the challenge of creating a future in space?
Like all species that fail the test of survival, will we be filtered out of the Universe? [26]
Like a lizard running from a hundred hungry snakes across a beach, to reach the high ground and survive, we must now run like the wind, to reach the high ground in space, and greatly improve our survival options. 
If the only way to save the life of the Earth, and prevent a heat death of the planet, is to get serious about real space development, then the real green movement on Earth will be the space movement.
Conservationists fell in love with the Earthrise image taken across the lunar surface in 1968, but then seemed to forget where the image came from.
If the Green movement had joined forces with the space settlement movement in the 1970s, the combined political muscle may have saved the Earth, by lifting the heavy human footprint from the planet and into space.
The tendency of the conservation movement to focus on the Earth was a huge moral, practical and political blunder, as the environmental movement has totally failed to keep a safe Earth.
The carbon energy industry is also totally focused on the Earth, on the belly of the Earth for oil, money and power.
The combined Green and carbon energy focus on the Earth has delivered humanity into the survival danger zone.
Will environmentalists wake up and figure out that survival is the lynchpin of a healthy Earth?
It may not be too late to act, but our hour of survival action is ticking away.
Venus is the twin of the Earth, nearly the same size and with nearly as much gravity. 
Could Venus be transformed in to a second Earth?
Considering how most human settlement across the Solar System can be in orbital habitats offering an Earth gravity, the Venus challenge would be more of a hobby.
The first task would be to cool the planet, which can be achieved by building a sunshade above Venus.
The atmosphere of Venus is very thick and mainly made of CO2.
Early cities at Venus could be floating islands in the air, and factories that break CO2 into carbon and oxygen.
The carbon could be processed into a variety of useful materials for building in space, a process that may be refined with the extraction of excess carbon in Earth’s air.
The extracted oxygen may be used in the air of space settlements.
The energy to do this work can be harvested from the Sun in space, which can be another role of the sunshade above Venus.
Raw materials may be mined from the planet below, when there are machines that can survive the heavy pressure in a heat that can melt lead.
As Venus is cooled, water could be added, brought in from the outer Solar System, where there are trillions of icy objects.
In time, an atmosphere similar to Earth’s could be made, and life introduced to second rock from the Sun.
This would be an intergenerational project lasting a thousand years, but what is time among the stars.
The legacy of creating a second Earth, would be a far better gift to the future than turning the Earth into a second Venus.
If we can turn inhospitable Venus into a second Earth, we are quite capable of dealing with the problems of Earth, no matter how bad the situation gets.
To be able to deal with planet-sized problems, we need to be in space, with access to the power of the Sun, and able to use the vast stock of resources found across the Solar System.
One overwhelming problem faced on Earth, is the vast amount of plastic trash in the oceans, including micro plastics, which come from synthetic clothing when washed, and micro plastic beads used in many products.
The micro plastics are a particular concern, because they get into the food chain and accumulate, and their long-term impact on animal and human health is not known.
It would be extremely expensive to clean up the oceans and keep them clean, facing financial limits with Earth’s global economy.
In space, there will be an opportunity to turn the cost problem on its head.
Once there is a sustainable industrial presence established in space, there will be no further cost for further work.
If we employ the opportunity of space wisely, we will be able to build robots in space to clean up the oceans of Earth, down to the micro plastics.
In space recycling needs to be from the atom up, and that is the attitude and practice that is needed on Earth.
In more ways than one, space presents an opportunity to heal the Earth.


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Space Pioneer
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If we view the Earth as a ship sailing through space, and all the citizens of Earth as the crew, then we should all be aware of the needs of our ship, and how best to manage the vessel.
We can wonder how large the crew should be, and how they should be living to ensure the safety of the ship.
At present humans demand more resources than the Earth can sustainably supply.
Over billions of years the Earth has maintained a balance of carbon in the air, with natural sequestration in plants, oil, coal, and rocks like limestone, so the Earth doesn’t get too hot.
The carbon balance in Earth’s biosphere has been disturbed by the burning of too much fossil fuel for too long.
The limits to human activity on Earth need to be identified, and enough natural area maintained, so evolution can continue.
If all citizens live a very Spartan life, the population can be larger.
If citizens wish to have a higher quality of life, then the population of Earth will need to be smaller.
The only way the Earth’s population can be reduced humanely and without causing a global rebellion, allowing all citizens to enjoy a high quality of life, is to invest in space settlements and space development, built on the virtually infinite energy well of the Sun in space.
When this need is seen, to save the human and save the Earth, citizens will be inspired to collaborate and work toward a sustainable human presence on Earth, and a quality of life for all citizens in space.
The demands of survival in space may serve to inspire Earth citizens, to properly manage and maintain starship Earth.
The experience of managing space habitats will provide lessons on how best to manage the large space habitat, called Earth.
Considering how the care of the Earth determines the survival of many species of life, and can also determine whether humans can survive on Earth, there is a basic need for education from kindergarten to university graduation, classes on exactly how we manage a starship called Earth, maintain the life-support systems, and preserve a beautiful planet for future generations.
If every student graduates with a certificate of Starship Earth Management, along with any other qualification gained, there will be battalions of graduates armed with the knowledge and skills to maintain a planet starship.
At present humans, driven by greed and foolishly clinging to a planet nest, are at war with the Earth and messing the nest.
We need to make peace with the Earth, and space is essential to achieve that peace.
We are on the cusp of a new phase in evolution, which will be in collaboration with our machines, and will find full expression in space.
The launching of the new evolutionary phase could have begun in the 1980s, with the 1970s proposals for space settlement.
The numbers in support were too few, and the political need was not seen.
The launch of Asgardia, attracting over half a million would-be space settlers in a couple of weeks, has demonstrated that there is a ground-swell of interest on Earth now for space settlement, and a new adventure among the stars.
Asgardia may succeed, and it may not, if too many drift away.
Many may not like the idea of a space kingdom, as it may not be the space future that they select to live in.
There is also the detail that it is currently illegal under space law to establish a nation in space, or claim territory beyond Earth.
Another approach can be to establish a United Nations trust territory, as an orbital city in space, open to the citizens of all nations, visa permitting.
In the future the laws may change, and nations may be able to establish national territory in space, but for now, we must work within the laws that exist to govern space beyond Earth.
Once the decision is made to proceed, the first step will be to secure a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, drawing power from the Sun in space, and be able to utilise the resources found in near-Earth asteroids and the Moon.
Once a sustainable industrial presence is secured, there will be no further call on resources from Earth.
Once the initial work is done, any dream can be created, and any number of orbital space settlements built, at no extra cost.
This is not a free lunch, because the future must be paid for now, to lift human activity to a sustainable industrial presence in space.
To get there, a mini-robot space program can be developed, as mini-robots will cost less to send into space.
How small could a mini-robot be?
The smaller the mini-robots are, the less the cost to secure a sustainable industrial presence in space.
The present aim is to have the project designed, costed and ready to roll by October 2019, with the aim of delivering the first Earth gravity orbital space city by 2029.
The construction phase can happen within ten years, so if preparation is delayed, the aim will be to hand over the key to a space city within ten years from when the starting gun is fired.
At present the cost of construction of a city in space is not known, and must be worked out in the preparation phase.
How much it will cost to secure a sustainable industrial presence in space is also not known, and will also need to be defined.
If the sustainable industrial presence can be secured early on, this will naturally lower the cost of building the first city in space. 
The key need will be numbers in support, which I suggest needs to be at least ten million determined individuals, space pioneers who fight for the project politically, engaging in raising the funds, and build the community that plans to move into space.
If the cost turns out to be a trillion dollars shared by ten million people, is the liberty of space and creative freedom of the stars worth such an investment?
With a view to the sustainable industrial presence being secured, it will be possible to plan for the building of living space in space for ten million and more space pioneers, at no further cost.
In this plan, it will also be possible to press on to build living space in space for all Earth’s citizens, and the shuttlecraft needed, in case an emergency on Earth requires the planet to be evacuated.
When the planet is safe again, the Earth can be reseeded from the arks of space, and civilization returned to the home planet.
The funds to build the first city in space can be raised by space pioneers who plan to live in space.
If the project is estimated at a trillion dollars, then ten million space pioneers can be called upon to raise $100,000 each over a period of ten years, between 2019 and 2029.
The incentive can be investment in an apartment in an orbital space city.
This apartment may become a tradable commodity.
Once the period of financial investment is announced, individuals who are able to, would be able to invest $100,000, depending on the final sum calculated.
Other space pioneers who do not have access to funds, could work in a team to raise $100,000 each over ten years.
An empowered individual, skilled at raising funds, could work with each team.
As funds are raised, work and careers will be created, which space pioneers can train to apply for.
Many space pioneers will create their own enterprises and space companies.
A key way to mobilise globally to create a future in space, will be with the virtual worlds, like Second Life, where meetings can be held, displays set up, working models created and tested via avatars, and the community build that plans to move into space.
Each space pioneer will be able to have an apartment in a virtual world space habitat, just like the apartment that they plan to occupy in space.
Space pioneers will be active in real life, which can be with a local space centre, where space activities happen, and employment is created.
A key role of space pioneers is to work toward peace on Earth, by solving the poverty problem, locally and globally.
Peace on Earth is critical, because this will improve security in space, and also help to build political support for our space project.
One key activity that all space pioneers can engage in, is to work with robots and remote control systems, using virtual reality headsets.
In this way, all space pioneers can be engaged in working toward creating a mini-robot space program, and securing a sustainable industrial presence in space.
Once industry is established in space, we can also work toward using space to solve all problems on Earth.
To help reduce global warming, we can build a sunshade in space, to help cool the home planet as excess CO2 is extracted from the air.
The sunshade could also serve as a solar power collector, with the energy beamed to Earth to help extract excess CO2 from the air.
Space factories can also make robots to clean up the oceans, even down to the micro-plastics that now fill the seas.
Once the orbital space city is opened, there can be a year of birthdays, to celebrate.
If the space city is built in time, there can be a year of peace in 2030.
The year 3031 could then be a year of creativity, looking toward an amazing future across the Solar System, and among the stars.
With the radioactive atomic war drums beating, and warnings of a sudden heat pulse that could send human civilization into chaos, or a combination of both, as historically environmental crisis has a very bad habit of tumbling into war, we may be in a late race for human survival.
As we reach toward securing a sustainable industrial presence in space, we can also invest in an emergency survival option on Earth, in case nuclear war and or a climate crisis force any survivors to live on Earth, as if they were living in space.
Just as we are preparing to secure a sustainable industrial presence in space, we can also place space development knowledge in a secure location, along with the means to revive space exploration in the future, with a community that is working toward a future in space, and is prepared to keep the dream alive if circumstances go bad on Earth.
I refer to this back-up plan as a Star Seed, as it would include all that would be needed to secure a sustainable base around another star.
There could be a thousand Star Seed communities around the Earth, who are also working toward building a city in space, and many more to follow.
The Star Seed community can have a bunker to provide protection against radiation and or heat, or if there is a nuclear winter, then also cold.
The community would need access to safe water, and be able to grow food.
Robots would be available to send onto the surface to scout and do work, and could be driven with remote control and viewing systems, the same systems that will be used to work in space.
Robots could be used to build protected environments on the surface, which can be lived in, once clean, cool and safe from radiation.
The plan would be to revive rocketry and send mini robots into space, where they could proceed to secure a sustainable industrial presence in space.
From space our robot base would be able to manufacture and send shuttlecraft to take the community into space, if the Earth is too damaged, radioactive, or too hot.
A robot presence would be maintained on Earth, to work on cleaning up the planet for the future.
The Star Seed community can also serve as a seed bank, to reseed the Earth at a future time, as needed.
If there are a thousand Star Seed communities around the Earth, they might communicate with short wave radio sets, as any later technology may no longer work.
We can hope the Star Seed community will not be needed, but it can be ready to preserve the dream on Earth, or move into space.
As we enter the celestial realm, what are the values that will guide the celestial society?
HONESTY ~   In science, honesty is a critical quality, so that scientific observations can be trusted as being accurate. In space trust is critical, as survival depends on knowing that all systems are working, fellow space workers can be trusted, and be able to identify any problems at an early stage. Honesty is critical for engineering, so that we will trust the word of an engineer when a structure is declared as being safe. Honesty can be a primary quality for space pioneers living in a celestial community. The quality of honesty can begin now on Earth.
COMPASSION ~   The best way to deliver security in space, is to build peace on Earth. The best way to build peace on Earth, is to send poverty into history. This can be achieved by using the wealth of space for the benefit of the people of Earth. This will generate goodwill, and help achieve peace. By being honest, fear is diminished. By being compassionate, care is improved. The art of fearless compassion can be seen as a celestial value, in space and on Earth.
HAPPINESS ~   By sending poverty into history, it is possible to build a happy society. A happy society is a healthier community. The greatest prosperity of all, is to be able to be happy, and being free to be happy. In the spirit of honesty and compassion, denizens of space and Earth can look to all fellow citizens being happy, and being able to be happy. A happy society will have less crime, even no crime, as all citizens will be concerned about the happiness of others, as they will have all they need, and be able to share.
FAIRNESS ~   An honest, compassionate and happy society, will also be fair to all citizens, where equality will be a simple matter. With direct access to the power of the Sun in space, all citizens will be the beneficiaries of the immense wealth generated. A space society must also be a sustainable society, with recycling, from the atom up. The principle of complete sustainability can also be applied to Earth, as Earth is in space, and can be seen as part of the celestial society
HONOUR ~   Elders deserve honour. Children should be honoured. Nature needs to be honoured. All animals are worthy of honour. The awakening machines that will be our partners in future evolution will honour us, if we honour them.
In the 1920s the American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that galaxies were flying away from us in every direction, and the further away they were, the faster they were flying away.
When cosmologists reversed the outward motion of the galaxies, they found that our Universe began 13.8 billion years ago as an infinitely small point, or singularity, which swiftly stretched to infinity to become our cosmic home, filled with trillions of stars in billions of galaxies.
The next logical question was to wonder about the environment in which our universe began.
Cosmologists refer to the environment that transcends our universe, as the multiverse.
There may be an infinite number of other universes in the multiverse, floating like bubbles in an ocean.
Living in our universe, we are not normally aware of the transcendent multiverse, but our primary environment is the multiverse.
Our life in the Universe might be compared to a baby in the womb, blissfully unaware of the outside world.
We can remain blissfully unaware of the multiverse, or we can seek the cues that can show us the reality of the transcendent multiverse.
Though we are largely blind to the multiverse at present, in time windows may be discovered that we can open to see into the transcendent realm. 
For now, we can reflect on what it means to be living in a much vaster place than our cosmic home.
Our Universe originates in the multiverse, and was born with all laws in full working order.
The laws that govern how our Universe works never evolve in the Universe, but were in fully functional at the beginning of time, and remain unchanged over time.
The early Universe was a primal hot plasma, which when cool enough, allowed the first atoms to form, mainly the lighter elements of hydrogen and helium, which gathered to become the first stars.
There were no rocky planets in orbit around the early stars.
Heavier elements were forged in the furnace of the first stars and released into space when those stars reached the end of their lives and exploded, spreading their stardust into space.
In time the stardust gathered to form the next generation of stars, which could then include rocky planets.
Our Sun is a third generation star that formed 4.5 billion years ago, with a family of planets including the Earth, and where life began and evolved, from sea onto land, and from land into the air, and now on the cusp of space.
In the revelation of the laws of the Universe, increasing levels of complexity appear, which came to deliver a tool-making primate that could build the means to expand the life of Earth into space.
Considering how the laws of the Universe appear to be seeking expansion toward ever increasing diversity, we can conclude that if Mother Nature could, she would have delivered life into space long ago, so that we would now see bizarre life-forms swimming in space, drawing energy from the Sun, and feasting on incoming comets.
We can now wonder if humans have a role in evolution, and this is to build the means to expand life into space, which became possible with the development of rocketry and space stations.
Instead of running with Nature into space, humans chose to cling to the planet nest as if there were endless tomorrows.
It is now dawning that by clinging to the planet nest, we humans have created problems that can now send our species into an evolutionary dead-end, as well as present a threat to life on Earth.
When O’Neill drew up the blueprint for space settlement, and described how it could pay its way, we had a simple choice.
We were blind to that choice, and now we must move swiftly in the time we have.
The silence from the stars may be telling us, that planet civilizations have a really bad habit of going extinct, even at the moment when they could become a space-faring civilisation.
Old politics, bent on nuclear weapons, milking wealth from fossil fuels and fighting endless wars, cannot be relied on to deliver a healthy survival future for the human family.
One of the primal lessons we can draw from evolution, is that survival goes to the fittest, not the wealthiest.
That is the primal lesson of Mother Nature that determined individuals can now pick up and run with.
To assure our best chances of survival, we must now find the swiftest way to secure a survival presence in space.
Once in space, the way to the stars will be open.
From space we will be able to deal with all problems on Earth, though much will be lost as a direct consequence of the delayed expansion of life from Earth into space.
Even if humans go extinct, Nature may not recover beneath a hotter Sun with too many greenhouse gases in the air, sending the Earth toward becoming a second Venus.
The survival of life on Earth may now depend on a human survival presence in space.
A survival presence in space will be the beginning of a whole new wave of evolution among the stars, both human and machine.
Will we prove ourselves fit enough to survive, and launch the next wave of evolution among the stars?
When cosmologists found that our Universe began as an infinitely small point, or singularity that swiftly stretched to infinity, there was also a simple revelation that all space and time were a vast oneness, which we are part of.
Cosmologists conclude that the Universe needs eleven dimensions to explain how it works, which are the four of space and time, and then seven more.
Physicists tell us that energy is never destroyed, which can change form, but can never be destroyed.
We are made of energy in a Universe that is one vast oneness.
We are subject to laws of cause and effect, where for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The primal oneness may explain quantum entanglement, which may allow us to have communication in real time across space.
By reflecting on the primal building blocks of the cosmos, and the quality of oneness of our universe, we may begin to see how we can begin to know the multiverse.
In a universe that is a vast oneness, where there are multiple dimensions, where energy cannot be destroyed, where we are really living in the multiverse, we can wonder what this means for our personal awareness.
There is clearly more to being alive than waiting for the Grim Reaper to take us out.
Is happiness found in nuclear weapons, grabbing endless wealth from fossil fuels, and fighting endless wars?
We need a focus on happiness at this time in human evolution, as the essential key to our survival.
If security in space will be delivered by ending poverty on Earth, which will build peace on Earth, then this would be seeking a way for all members of the human family to be happy, and be able to realise their full creative potential, on Earth and among the stars.
The pursuit of happiness in this way will defuse the need for nuclear weapons.
By accessing the virtually infinite power of the Sun in space, the need to reap wealth from fossil fuel will be gone, as infinite wealth can be created in space, changing the meaning of money.
With space to expand our dreams, the power to do any work, and the resources to create any dream, there will be no need to fight wars on Earth.
With the heavy human industrial boot lifted off the neck of Mother Nature, life will be happy on the home planet, where evolution will be able to continue to reveal new forms of diversity and beauty.
As ever, Nature will be red in tooth and sharp in claw, and we can respect the primal play of survival in evolution.
In space we will find new ways of peace and creativity, where we will no longer need the red tooth and the sharp claw.
We can understand our origins, as we discover new ways to live.
As the Sun gets hotter, the sunshade in space can be increased, allowing life on Earth to continue for billions of years beyond the use-by date.
Happiness may prove to be the currency of space, where we can live in ways that allow others to be happy.
The principle of happiness will reveal new forms of politics, which may prove minimal.
In space, the human imagination will be liberated to be creative and explore.
Meditations in happiness may reveal the windows to the transcendent realm, by having that simple focus on oneness, and being happy in the oneness of the cosmos that we are in.
Meditations in space may reveal what it means to be living in a transcendent multiverse.
If a focus on happiness can lead to the peace we need for security in space, then we can focus on being there.
Should a family of ten million space pioneers gather from all nations to create a survival future in space, then it may prove useful to create spaces for peace, to be quiet and reflect on life and the stars.
With a view to a year of peace in space in 2030, we can begin that work for peace and happiness on Earth now.
With a clear mind, free of distraction, and in good humour, we will be able to focus more clearly on the survival of the fittest in space, and how swiftly we can get there.
We will need a fire in the heart to drive our imagination to solve any problem, no matter how hard.
We will need a light in the mind, to be free to work and deliver solutions to any problem.
We will need a song on our tongue, to sing among the stars.
We will need to be happy, and share this happiness, to be sure to win the stars.
We can solve the homelessness problem, by creating a society that provides homes for all citizens.
We can solve the poverty problem, by creating a society that provides work for all able citizens, and provides support for all unable to work.
We can solve the crime problem, by creating a society that values all citizens.
We can have a much healthier society, by creating an environment that allows citizens to be happy.
I see a future among the stars with happiness, peace and creativity.
I also see the potential to miss the train to the stars, and end up in a wreck on Earth, unless we learn new ways and swiftly.
With no sign of any alien intelligence beyond Earth, we may be warned that we have one shot at a stellar future, and we are decades late in making this play.
We can also know that the wealth of space is waiting, which will allow us to create a stellar economy without poverty.
We can begin creating this future on Earth now.
We can mobilise globally with the virtual worlds, and mobilise locally with hands-on action to create a celestial future.
We can establish space centres around the world, beacons of hope that shine a light to a future among the stars.
With a view to a celestial society focused on happiness, peace and creativity, we can create spaces on Earth to reflect on happiness and peace, places for the heart to find rest from endless wars that torment human society.
We can move on from war, acknowledge the role of conflict in human progress, but look to new ways among the stars.
In the celestial realm, the stars are in our hands.
We are made of stardust.
We are stars.


Would you like to rise to the challenge, help invest in human survival, help create a future among the stars, and help win back a safe and vibrant Earth? If yes, contact Kim Peart at Space Pioneers, and join the mission. If ten million determined individuals will rise to the challenge over the coming year, there will be hope of winning the race for survival. If we have not got all the pieces for survival in place by 2029, we may find our species holding a losing hand.
[1]   The Colonization of Space
Gerard K. O’Neill, September 1974, Physics Today

[2]   The High Frontier 
Gerard K. O’Neill, 1977, William Morrow
[3]   The High Frontier
Gerard K. O’Neill speaks
[4]   Kalpana One Space Settlement

Kalpana One ~ external view
Fragomatik, 2013

Internal view of Kalpana One Space Settlement
Brian Versteeg, 2014 
[5]   Creating a Solar Civilization
Kim Peart, 2006, revised in 2012, Space Pioneers website
[6]   A fleeting visit: an asteroid from another planetary system just shot past Earth
Jonti Horner, 6 November 2017, The Conversation
[7]   The Theory of Moral Sentiments
[8]   The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
[9]   ‘How the unemployed ‘disappear’ and why it matters’
Rose-Marie Stampe & David Fryer, The Conversation, 12 January 2015
[10]   ‘Thousands of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans homeless’
Fran Kelly, 6 March 2015, ABC News Online
[11]   ‘Automation to fundamentally change the job market within 20 years, says Oxford professor’
Matt Eaton & Nance Haxton, 23 March 2015, ABC News Online
[12]   Wayne Robinson's journey from 'humiliating' homelessness to 'beautiful artwork’
James Oaten, 24 December 2017, ABC News Online
[13]   What can the UK learn from how Finland solved homelessness?
Dawn Foster, 22 March 2017, The Guardian
[14]   Why a universal basic income is a poor substitute for a guaranteed job
Claire Connelly, 19 January 2017, ABC News Online
[15]   Rise of the machines: Is a universal basic income the answer for mass unemployment?
Michael Janda, 5 July 2017, ABC News Online
[16]   World War …?
Kim Peart, 18 April 2017, Tasmanian Times
[17]   News Coverage of Coal’s Link to Global Warming, in 1912
Andrew C. Revkin, 21 October 2016, New York Times
[18]   Peter Glaser
[19]   The High Frontier 
Gerard K. O’Neill, 1977, William Morrow, page 162
[20]   The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning
James Lovelock, 2009, Penguin, pages 100-120
[21]   Storms of My Grandchildren
James Hansen, 2009, Bloomsbury
[22]   ‘End of Days’ is just around the corner, says American professor Guy McPherson
Kevin Werner, 31 October 2017, Flamborough Review

McPherson in New Zealand ~
[24]   Roundtrip Stellar Travel Using Laser-Pushed Lightsails
Robert L. Forward
AIAA Vol.24 No.2 March April 1984, page 187
[25]   Stephen Hawking Helps Launch Project ‘Starshot’ for Interstellar Space Exploration
Tariq Malik, 12 April 2016,
[26]   The Great Filter - Are We Almost Past It?
Robin Hanson, 15 September 1998

Great Filter

Great Filter theory could explain why we’re yet to make alien contact
George Roberts, 21 July 2017, ABC News Online
[27]   ‘Why not split harmful carbon dioxide into harmless carbon and oxygen?’
James E. Miller, Scientific American, 9 July 2009
[28]   Dunbar’s Number
[29]   Software enables robots to be controlled in virtual reality
Space Daily, 18 December 2017
Software enables robots to be controlled in virtual reality
Brown University, 14, December 2017
[30]   Kim Peart, Tasmanian political candidate, and his dream for humanity's future in space
Aneeta Bhole, 16 September 2017, ABC News Online
‘Virtual footprint to land on moon’
R Bruinsma, 22 July 2013, Sunshine Coast Daily
‘Remembering the Moon Landing’
Kim Peart, 21 July 2014, Tasmanian Times
‘Hunt for authors of moon landing time capsule’
B.C. Lewis, 10 July 2017, Blue Mountains Gazette
ABOUT KIM PEART ~   Kim was born in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1952, and then brought to Tasmania as a baby and raised in Howrah. Kim is a visual artist who engaged in environmental studies in 1975, when he founded a Viking Society, then in the spirit of adventure explored space settlement options from 1976. He founded a space society, the Hobart L5 Society, which later became the Southern Cross L5 Society, and is now the National Space Society of Australia. In the early 1990s Kim headed the Bellerive Advancement Group, when they successfully turned the tide on Council plans to develop Kangaroo Bay. In 1996 Kim ran in the Federal election in Franklin, and later in many Council elections in Clarence. Over the years Kim has been an urban environmentalist, promoting the care of urban bushland, wildlife and bushland trails along the hills above Bellerive and Howrah, called the SkyWalk. In 2007 Kim was included on the list of Tasmania’s top 200 movers and shakers at 115 in regard to, “An urban bushland conservationist who has worked tirelessly over the years to maintain walking tracks and protect wildlife from the encroachment of bush-front housing developments.” In 2006, when seeking answers to the primal questions of human survival, Kim wrote a document called ‘Creating a Solar Civilization’, exploring human futures on Earth and among the stars. In 2011 Kim founded Space Pioneers, to explore ways of using the virtual world as a global campaign platform to help create a celestial future. Kim now lives in Ross, Tasmania, with his wife Jennifer and a small tribe of alpacas. In September 2017 Kim attended the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, South Australia, where an Australian Space Agency was launched, the head of the European Space Agency ran a workshop on creating a Moon village, and Elon Musk presented his vision for the future of life on Mars. Kim now looks toward setting up a studio in an orbital space city, to create some interesting art among the stars. Kim wonders if the virtual worlds, as a global mobilising campaign platform, will be our stepping stone to the stars.

Image: Kim Peart's avatar Starfarer, with a photo of Kim in the space station in Second Life. 


Outback Radio Telescope Listens In on Interstellar Visitor
"A telescope in outback Western Australia has been used to listen to a mysterious cigar-shaped object that entered our solar system late last year. The unusual object - known as 'Oumuamua - came from another solar system, prompting speculation it could be an alien spacecraft. So astronomers went back through observations from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) telescope to check for radio transmissions coming from the object between the frequencies of 72 and 102 MHz - similar to the frequency range in which FM radio is broadcast. While they did not find any signs of intelligent life, the research helped expand the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) from distant stars to objects closer to home.” ~ "Researchers have now suggested there could be more than 46 million similar interstellar objects crossing the solar system every year."

NASA's Idea to Send Swarm of Robots to Mars
Space Daily, 5 April 2018
"NASA has announced their intent to fund research which will send a swarm of Robot bees up to Mars to explore the red planet. Sputnik spoke to Sethu Vijayakumar, Professor of Robotics at the University of Edinburgh, and former judge of the BBC's robot wars, about the 'swarm' technology format. Sputnik: What is it about the bee as an insect that would make it a good model for NASA's Mars exploration? Sethu Vijayakumar: Mars exploration is an interesting topic because you need different kinds of tools depending on what you want to do with it. There is an interesting trade off when you talk about robotics: between power, agility and the capability. These are an example of a system, which are completely agile, very power efficient, but in terms of capabilities, it might be quite limited. The bees will probably be good at sensing, and probably good at covering a few local areas around it before it has to get back to home base. So I think that the bees are a good model for scenarios where you want local exploration and then data being processed at a mother ship."

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