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The Message
Securing our cosmic survival in a rather dangerous old Universe
Kim Peart
Mother Nature did not look kindly upon the dinosaurs, who were wiped out in a flash from the heavens when an asteroid struck the Earth 66 million years ago. When survival fails, there are bones in the fossil record as a warning of the ruthless ferocity of Nature, but there is no life. We live in the shadow of many threats to human survival, from a monster rock from space wiping out the human presence, to nuclear war leaving the planet a radioactive graveyard. Now a new threat has been found, where a growing level of carbon dioxide in the air could lead to a rapid rise in heat, making it too hard to grow food, and destabilizing human society, leading to conflicts that could all too easily slide into nuclear madness. We need a plan to help ensure human survival, and the leadership to deliver this plan into action. This document explores how concerned citizens can rise to the challenge, and help secure our cosmic survival, so that we can continue to enjoy the wondrous bounty of life and beauty in the Universe. We need a new age of heroes, determined individuals who will fight for a better future, our cosmic survival, and winning back a safe Earth for future generations. This document raises the urgency of the need for action, if we love life, exploring how ten million and more space pioneers can move as one to achieve the impossible: creating a stellar civilization, securing peace on Earth, and opening the way to unbridled creativity among the stars.

I remember Sputnik.
At my uncle’s house in Bellerive in 1957, people were standing outside looking up at the night sky. [1]
I was five.
Now I am able to read how panic had spread around the Western world, as the BEEP-BEEP-BEEP of Sputnik sailed overhead.
The age of the atomic bomb was a dozen years old, but now the ability had arrived to send this method of mass destruction to any place on Earth, at the speed of an asteroid, like a falling star.
With science delivering the means to end all life on Earth, many people turned away from science, longing for a simpler way of life.
With space exploration doubling up as the means to deliver the end of life on Earth, many people were driven away from space.

When President John F. Kennedy challenged the Soviet Union to a race to the Moon in 1962, the prestige of a nation was on the line.
No matter how many overtures of peace were wrapped around the Moon missions, for many they were just another face of the dangerous and lethal atomic age, and another face of the terrifying Cold War.

During high school years I followed the Moon race, keeping a scrapbook, hankering to become an astronaut and join the missions.
Unable to meet the grades, I fell from such dreams, finding my way with art.
Beneath the shadow of nuclear death, adventure was on the agenda, with Scouts, and Army Cadets.
I was out in the bush with endless camps, discovering aspects of life that many children might only dream of now.
Late teenage years were difficult, when finding one’s feet as an adult is a rocky path.
When undertaking environmental studies in 1975, I also founded a Viking Society, in a spirit of adventure and fearlessness.
“Go anywhere, do anything, fear nothing.” became my motto, on a planet where nuclear death could arrive in a flash.
Meeting deep thinkers like Bill Mollison, the founder of Permaculture, was a unique experience.
Mollison had a place to escape to outside of Hobart, in case society fell apart, and gangs roamed the streets in old cars with guns.
My spirit for adventure was a tad more optimistic than Bill's, pursuing details of Viking society, ship building techniques, Viking art, and Nordic culture.
In Chequers Coffee Shop in Hobart one day in 1976, looking through a glossy Starlog magazine along with a cappuccino, the inner Viking was enlivened, along with long lost dreams of being an astronaut, when an article was found about a really big vision for space settlement, proposed by the Princeton Physics professor, Gerard K. O’Neill.
I will return to O’Neill later.
In the age of posting letters, contact was made, and a branch of the L5 Society founded in Tasmania.
Later, this became known as the Southern Cross L5 Society, which went national in 1982 with a launch at the Rocks Observatory in Sydney, and is now the National Space Society of Australia.
As space settlement failed to dawn, due to a lack of public and political support, the long wait of inaction with space set in.
In 1987 I was awakened to the realities of industrial farming, which led to an investigation of global environmental matters, questions of sustainability, and concerns about human survival.
As the Iron Wall fell in Berlin, and as the clouds of nuclear fear were blown away, for a time, the global focus shifted to environmental concerns.
Summing up observations in a small document in 1993 ~ Keys to Survival ~ I came to see that the culture we lived would determine our future, and maybe, our survival.
While seeking indigenous views on culture, I heard a Papuan on the radio in 1994, William Takaku, say a very interesting thing.
William collected stories from around New Guinea, directed plays, and would later star as Man Friday in a Hollywood movie of Robinson Crusoe. [2]
His words were ~ “Nature is culture. We must learn from Nature. When man sees himself as separate from Nature, he is doomed.”
I wrote to William, who liked my document, and one day phoned.
Such a deep melodic voice.
Being a simple Viking at heart, I reflected on his words of ancient wisdom from the tropical forests, but with a Western mind trained in science.
How did this wisdom of the ancients apply to me?
I considered evolution, and also the revelation of natural law from the beginning of time. [3]
In the 1920s, the American astronomer, Edwin Hubble, found that the Universe was expanding, leading to the deliberations of cosmologists that the cosmos began as an infinitely small point, or singularity, which swiftly expanded to become out infinite Universe.
Expansion is the most primal force in the cosmos, underpinning all else.
Expansion is seen when life fills the Earth to the brim of the atmosphere, when fish slither out of the sea to be our ancestor on land, when humans spread around the planet, and when machines increase in complexity at an ever increasing pace.
We live in an age of speed, and grasping this is critical to defining a vision for survival.
If life could, it would have expanded beyond Earth long ago, and if it had, we would see strange life forms in space, soaking up the energy of the Sun, and feasting on incoming comets.
But we see no life beyond Earth.
Should we wonder why Nature would allow a tool-maker to emerge that can build the means to destroy all life, as well as the machines to expand life beyond Earth?
Nature keeps all species of life in check with instinct, so that life can continue, and can evolve into ever more diverse forms.
Nature has paid a very high price in allowing a primate tool-maker to be free of instinct, bristling with nukes and going unsustainable, burning fossil fuel that lifts the carbon level in the biosphere, impacting on evolution, and increasing in number like a plague, all demanding the good life and expecting the best.
Should we wonder if it is a matter wired into natural law, that a toolmaking species becomes the means for the expansion of life beyond a planet?
Should we wonder if this is a primal truth at our level of evolution, like the law of gravity, which we ignore at our peril?
In the age of speed, in the space age that we have been in since I was looking up to the stars one night in 1957, we have been presented with the option of expansion into space.
We sailed to the Moon, but instead of following through with space settlement in the 1970s, we have clung to the Earth, expecting this planet to meet all our dreams.
The Earth is now groaning beneath our collective weight, destruction, and demand for resources.
The Earth is beginning to die.
When a species goes into the night of extinction, the Earth dies.
When coral reefs bleach in the heat of warmer ocean water, the Earth dies.
When forests burn in a hotter world, the Earth dies.
When fish and birds eat the plastics that we have filled the oceans with, and die, the Earth dies.
We must now decide if we will continue to be the sentinels of death, or turn the tide of doom toward life again?
At the heart of life there is the expansion that drove the birth and progress of the Universe.
In the 1970s we had a chance to establish a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth.
We failed to run with this expansion when the time arrived, in the age of speed, in the space age, and now we face the price of that lost opportunity.
Now there is a cloud hanging over our survival, with a warning from the stars, which I will explore.
At the heart of evolution is survival, and if we will not get serious about our own survival, what are we here for?
If we had run with the expansion of life beyond Earth when the opportunity was there to do so, we could have kept a safe Earth, and also improved our cosmic survival.
Now we must examine the price of our planet daydreams, fast turning into a nightmare.
When David Wallace-Wells was researching his article ~ An Uninhabitable Earth [4] ~ he found the climate scientists puzzling over the Great Filter theory. [5]
The Great Filter is an arm of Fermi's paradox, which speculates on why there is no sight or sound of any alien civilizations, given that there are as many as 400 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy, and an estimated 2 trillion galaxies in the Universe. [6]
Some may argue that space is simply too huge, that the distance between the stars is too great, but this line of reasoning collapses in the face of stellar exploration now being planned.
In 1986 Robert L. Forward presented a new approach to stellar exploration, when he proposed that a tiny robot craft could be accelerated to a high velocity using a laser beam to propel a solar sail, reaching another star within decades. [7]
In my 2006 document, Creating a Solar Civilization, I explored how such craft could make rock-fall and use local energy and raw materials to build a star base and factory, communicate with Earth, and build similar robot craft to be sent on to other stars. [8]
At the speed of a solar sail, and in the blink of a cosmic eye, robot explorers from Earth could gain an unlimited presence at every star in the Milky Way, and be sending robot explorers on to other galaxies.
In 2016 Professor Stephen Hawking collaborated with the billionaire investor Yuri Milner, with the $100 million Starshot project, planning to send a robot explorer to Alpha Centauri, 4.37 light years away, on a journey lasting 20 years, using a laser beam to accelerate a solar sail. [9]

If life is as common in the Universe as it is on Earth, then we have every right to wonder where the alien civilizations are, and why we can’t see or hear them, as reaching the stars, even with robots, is really quite simple.

Once among the stars, light years out of communications with their home planet, robot explorers would be making all their own decisions, and could in time evolve to be more advanced than their makers.
Space is the natural environment for machines, not needing air, with the energy of stars to draw on to do any work, and create any mechanical dream they can imagine.
A star is a virtually infinite energy well, amply demonstrated by our Sun, which is slowly getting hotter, now 35% warmer that at its birth 4.5 billion years ago, and with so much fuel in reserve, it will continue to burn fiercely over the next 5 billion years, until expanding to the orbit of the Earth as a red giant star.
So much power for our future.
Once human civilization has secured a sustainable foothold in space, and as we spread the life of Earth across the Solar System and among the stars, our future survival in the cosmos will be greatly improved.
We are now so close to a future in space, which a Great Filter event would have to fall in our very near future.
What could that event be?
A monster asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs 66 million years ago, but could an asteroid terminate all planet civilizations on the cusp of birth from their home planet?
We have survived the possession of nuclear weapons on Earth for over seven decades, which used in vengeance could end all life on this planet, so nukes cannot be relied upon as a universal terminator.
It turns out that there is one candidate that could strike all advanced planet civilizations at the same time, as they were on the cusp of stellar expansion.
We only need to look at what is happening on Earth, to see the warning from the stars writ large in our air, with a rising level of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is warming up the planet.
CO2 is a greenhouse gas, which remains in the air for a very long time, absorbing reflected light, and radiating this as warmth back into the air.
As CO2 levels rise, the greenhouse effect of this gas increases.
This basic science is very old, and was reported in newspapers in 1912, when people read ~ "The furnaces of the world are now burning about 2,000,000,000 tons of coal a year. When this is burned, uniting with oxygen, it adds about 7,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere yearly. This tends to make the air a more effective blanket for the earth and to raise its temperature. The effect may be considerable in a few centuries.” [10]
The greenhouse effect with CO2 is greater now than in past eons, due to the Sun being that much warmer.
The Earth system is able to maintain a relatively steady temperature for life, by sequestering CO2 into rocks like limestone and fossil fuel deposits, but with the rapid burning of ancient carbon energy in the industrial age, CO2 has raced ahead of the Earth’s ability to keep carbon balanced between the Earth and the biosphere.
The author of the Gaia theory, which describes how the Earth system works, observed the rise in CO2 and has warned of a pending sudden heat rise, as the Earth seeks a new and hotter temperature balance. [11]
Lovelock points out that as the Sun is now warmer, it is getting harder for the Earth to keep the temperature down.
By disturbing the carbon balance, Lovelock warns that we have destabilised the Earth System, which will now seek to shift to a permanently hotter environment. 
Lovelock predicts that the tropics and sub-tropics will become hostile for life, resulting in the deaths of billions of people.
How soon could such an event happen?
One thing we know about Nature, is that sudden change can be very rapid, as with a hurricane, or tornado, a collapsing ice sheet, or volcanic eruption, an earthquake, or a tsunami.
The climate scientist who first warned the world about global warming in 1988 [12], later concluded that atmospheric CO2 needed to be under 350 parts per million (ppm), to keep planet temperature rise below 1.5C above pre-industrial levels, or a runaway greenhouse effect would begin, which he calls the Venus syndrome. [13]
Hansen began his career as a scientist with the study of Venus, which once had as much water as Earth, and could have been the home of life, until a runaway greenhouse effect turned the planet into a hot hell, evaporating all water, generating a heat that makes the rocks glow, and with a temperature that can melt lead.
Hansen warns that if we don’t keep CO2 in the air below 350 ppm, we will be allowing the beginning of a process that will turn the Earth into a second Venus in the Solar System.
Knowing that there is a CO2 problem, it is a matter of how soon this crisis will hit, which James Lovelock fears will be sooner than later.
Rumblings from other scientists, including Professor Stephen Hawking, raised concerns about human survival on Earth. 
Hawking once told the BBC News ~ "We are close to the tipping point where global warming becomes irreversible. Trump's action could push the Earth over the brink, to become like Venus, with a temperature of 250 degrees, and raining sulphuric acid.” [14]
The Australian microbiologist, Dr Frank Fenner, who played a leading role in the fight against smallpox, issued a rather dire warning for the future of humanity, when he said, "Homo sapiens will become extinct, perhaps within 100 years. A lot of other animals will, too. It's an irreversible situation. I think it's too late. I try not to express that because people are trying to do something, but they keep putting it off.” [15]
In the light of those scientists who will speak out, we can but wonder how many more scientists share those concerns, but remain silent.
One scientist who sees no hope for our future, the emeritus professor of the environment at the University of Arizona, Guy McPherson, has come to the conclusion that humans will not survive beyond 2030 and speaking in New Zealand in 2017 said, “It will probably be earlier.” and “I’m not a fan (of the information), I’m not promoting it. All I’m doing is connecting the dots. I’m forced to come to that solution.” [16]

McPherson sees a sudden rise in heat, driven by increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the air, making the planet too hot for life, and making conditions to tough to grow food.
Do we dismiss McPherson's assertion, or bother to examine the claim?
When I look at the basic carbon maths, I find the science is sounding a resounding bell of warning.
During the last ice age the CO2 level in the air was around 180 ppm, rising to around 270 ppm during past few millennia, along with a 130-metre rise in the sea level.
The difference between those two figures, is 90 ppm. 
Add 90 ppm to 270 ppm, and we have a level of CO2 in the air that was passed in the 1990s, of 360 ppm.
Hansen’s preferred level of 350 ppm atmospheric CO2 was passed in the 1980s.
CO2 in the air is now going beyond 410 ppm, and rising by 3 ppm per annum.
The CO2 level has been higher in past eons, but the difference now is the rapid rise in CO2, along with a warmer Sun, which is destabilising the Earth system.
The Earth is now fully armed for a heat pulse event, and as humankind burns more fossil fuel, the armoury of Mother Nature is being loaded more each day.
David Wallace-Wells presented this case, when he wrote ~ "And however sanguine you might be about the proposition that we have already ravaged the natural world, which we surely have, it is another thing entirely to consider the possibility that we have only provoked it, engineering first in ignorance and then in denial a climate system that will now go to war with us for many centuries, perhaps until it destroys us. That is what Wallace Smith Broecker, the avuncular oceanographer who coined the term “global warming,” means when he calls the planet an “angry beast.” You could also go with “war machine.” Each day we arm it more.” [4]
The fires in Greece in 2018 should be a sobering reminder of how the Earth can deliver a sudden catastrophic event.
One survivor described, "It happened very fast. The fire was in the distance, then sparks from the fire reached us. Then the fire was all around us," Mr Stavrinidis said. "We ran to the sea. We had to swim out because of the smoke, but we couldn't see where anything was.” [17] 
Some of those people drowned in the sea.
The region on Earth heating up faster than anywhere else, is the Arctic, where CO2 and methane are being released from the permafrost, at times exploding from the ice, leaving great craters. [18]
Methane is a more effective greenhouse gas than CO2, and though it does not remain in the air as long, while aloft it will serve to drive up the heat on Earth.
On the ocean floor there are vast deposits of methane, in the form of methane hydrate, which is an ice that burns. [19]
Should warmer ocean waters reach the methane hydrate deposits, triggering an explosive release, this could prove to be the trigger of a heat pulse event on Earth.
Human reaction to a heat pulse is highly unlikely to be very polite.
Billions of people will seek to move, which may lead to global conflicts that slide into nuclear madness.
If we avoid nuclear annihilation and struggle on, a repeat of events in the Great dying of 252 million years ago could make life even tougher, should sulphur bugs from the deep ocean bloom on the surface of dying seas, releasing toxic hydrogen sulphide gas, which would kill life on land and also rise high into the air to destroy the ozone layer, which would then let in lethal levels of solar and cosmic radiation, killing more life on land. [20]
In this future, any human survivors would have to live on Earth, as if they were living in space, or on Mars, or on the Moon.
Could the prospect of a heat pulse have been avoided?
There was no way that the momentum of human progress was going to suddenly stop in recent decades, but a new direction in human civilization could have delivered a different future, and one with a safe Earth.
Was the emergence of the human toolmaker in Nature a total accident, or an event wired into natural law, like the life of stars, fish emerging from the sea to become our ancestors, and the development of artificial intelligence (AI)?
All that happens in the Universe is determined by laws, from the beating of our heart, to the flight path of a space ship.
The human toolmaker used fossil fuels to build the means of going into space.
After the successful Apollo missions to the Moon, the Princeton physics professor, Gerard K. O’Neill and his team, worked out the blueprint for building human civilization in space.
One of the key planks in the O’Neill plan, was to use a concept proposed by Dr Peter Glaser in 1968, to construct solar power station in space, harvesting the power of the Sun, of which O’Neill wrote, "If this development comes to pass, we will find ourselves here on Earth with a clean energy source, and we will further improve our environment by saving, each year, over a billion tons of fossil fuels”. [21]
If the O’Neill plan had been embraced and pursued, it would have been in full swing in the 1980s, and humankind would have begun the transition out of burning fossil fuels, in the only way that was possible back then.
The 1980s, according to James Hansen, was also the decade when we needed to be reducing the use of fossil fuel, to keep atmospheric CO2 below 350 ppm, to keep this Earth safe.
How fantastic a coincidence is that?
The governments of Earth, however, preferred to wage war, like that in Vietnam, and Iraq, and burn ever more fossil fuel like their was no tomorrow.
Instead of building a more advanced society in space, we worked our way into a crisis on Earth.
Will we add to the silence of the stars through our foolish neglect of space?
If McPherson is on the money, then our time for delay on space action is well and truly up.
We must rise to the challenge of space immediately, as a matter of urgency and in resounding number, to work as one for human survival, or find we have surrendered into the despicable night.
Working feverishly on amazing dreams will come to naught, unless our work is built on the demands of survival.
If we have a ten-year window to act, that action needs to begin now, as in a couple of years it may be too late.
O’Neill suggested that, "Almost anything can be done in a ten year period, when we set our minds to it.” [22]
Considering how Britain and the United States mobilised during the Second World War to defeat the German and Japanese empires, how half a million workers were engaged to create the first atomic bomb with the Manhattan Project, launching the nuclear age in a couple of years, and how half a million people were employed to win the race to the Moon within a decade, O’Neill had solid historic evidence in mind when making that suggestion.
If we find our mind for survival, what could we do?
The key action that we need to take to improve our cosmic survival, is to secure a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, so that we may be secure in space, and never be at risk of failing in space, or falling back to Earth.
The swiftest way to secure a sustainable industrial presence in space, is with a mini robot space program.
Mini robots will be cheaper to send into space, and cost much less to support than human workers.
Mini robots can be any size, down to the micro level.
Mini robots can be used to mine for raw materials, construct solar power stations, and establish industry in space, where larger robots can be built, and human scale space settlements constructed.
The space factories can also produce the shuttlecraft to be sent to Earth, to collect human passengers to visit space.
Human workers on Earth will be able to work with robots in space, using remote-control systems.
As soon as it is safe to do so, human workers can be sent into space to work with the robots from protected environments.
With this approach to space, we could plan on the first Earth gravity orbital space city being open for occupation in 2029. [23]
Human activity on the Moon and Mars will be stepping-stones to orbital space habitats, which can be scattered across the Solar System.
Human society need never again be dependent on a planet, but thrive in the liberty of space among the stars.
For health reasons, the lower gravities of the Moon and Mars may be seen as a disadvantage, where anyone born on Mars, or on the Moon, would have lighter bones and weaker muscle, making any visit to Earth a health risk.
The gravity of Mars is a third that of Earth, and that of the Moon, one sixth.
Martians could become prisoners of Mars level gravity, and Lunatics even more so, with issues visiting Mars.
If Earth gravity is established as the health norm for human society across the Solar System, so that the children of space can safely visit Earth for a holiday by the beach, or skiing in the snow, then the Moon and Mars will be places to visit, but not to call home.
With industry established in space, any number of solar power stations could be built, with the energy beamed to Earth to help extract excess carbon from the air.
For space industry, the closer a solar power station is located to the Sun, the more the energy harvested to do work.
Solar power stations near the Sun, may in time beam power to the outer Solar System.
The unlimited power of the Sun in space can be used to win back a safe Earth.
The best way to deal with atmospheric CO2, is to crack the CO2 atom, liberate the oxygen, and gain the carbon, which can be processed into a useful resource for Earth and space industries.
James M. Miller, a chemical engineer, writes, “Splitting carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbon and oxygen can in fact be accomplished, but there is a catch: doing so requires energy.” [24]
To win back a safe Earth, we can use the power of the Sun, harvested in space and beamed to Earth, to do the work.
Carbon can become one of the key building materials in space, and when Earth’s biosphere is cleaned, there will be plenty of CO2 waiting in the atmosphere of Venus.
Mining CO2 from the air of Venus can become the first step toward turning Venus into a second Earth, which would be far better than Earth tumbling into the dead hot state of a second Venus.
Transforming Venus from a hot hell to a cool paradise will take a while, but it can be done.
A sunshade in space above Venus will also help to cool that very hot and hostile planet.
A sunshade in space above Earth, will also help to keep the Earth cool, as the Sun gets hotter, extending the tenure of life on Earth by billions of years.
Unless anyone can reveal a better plan, space is the key to winning back a safe Earth, and the power of the Sun, harvested in space, is the means.
It is not just the task that must be done, it is the speed at which that task must be accomplished that is critical, to turn the tide and a runaway greenhouse effect on Earth.
In this future of space action for Earth care, space could become the new green.
The industrial revolution was an opportunity to eliminate poverty, by sharing the wealth generated through ensuring work with fair pay.
Instead, poverty was created.
The automation revolution after the Second World War was another opportunity to eliminate poverty, by sharing the wealth generated through ensuring work with fair pay.
Instead, the wealth was not shared, and poverty has become entrenched in wealthy nations, along with rediculous levels of homelessness.
The robot revolution, now underway, will displace many old employment paths, and careers, but there is no plan in place to ensure that there will be no increase in poverty, as the wealth generated with robots will not be shared through income, work and careers.
The capitalist approach, where power is concentrated in the hands of a few, and poverty is allowed, along with homelessness, is abusive by nature toward too many citizens.
Children living in poverty in a wealthy nation, may never realise their full potential.
How many Einstein's are lost to the world, trapped in poverty, condemned to homelessness, falling into a life of crime?
The problem of poverty in wealthy nations, is writ large globally, revealing more intent to maintain poverty, than ever to solve this tragedy.
Can a line be drawn between poverty on Earth and security in space?
Violence and conflict on Earth will follow humans into space, making the space environment more dangerous than need be, where habitats in a vacuum are all too easily burst from within, or without, by conflict and or terrorism.
The security environment in space can be greatly improved, by building peace on Earth.
The best way to build peace on Earth, so that conflict does not follow human society into space, is to end poverty on Earth.
Ending poverty will generate goodwill, so that all children can live a healthy and happy life, and realise their full potential.
Building a world where all children are healthy and happy will win the support of parents, as all parents have children.
Winning the support of parents to participate in creating a prosperous future for all, on Earth and in space, is the only way we can hope to build peace on Earth, which will then translate into an improved security environment in space.
Knowing that with a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, there will be no further call on resources from Earth, and an infinite return on the investment, from across the Solar System and among the stars, we have a unique opportunity in our hands to begin creating a stellar economy free of poverty.
Our challenge is to ensure that the bounty of space is not hijacked by a few people with power, and or a few governments with guns.
The only way around this problem, is for a strong movement of space pioneers, ten million and more, who collectively work toward securing the stellar economy for the benefit of all Earth’s children.
The stellar economy, free of poverty, can be created through capitalism.
Achieving this is very simple.
Before Adam Smith wrote his work on the Wealth of Nations, he wrote a book on compassion, with a view to the two works being companions. [25]
Capitalism conveniently forgot the need for compassion to keep capitalism fair for all, and free of poverty.
Space pioneers can work to revive the art of compassionate capitalism, as the bridge to secure a safe future in space.
With unlimited wealth generated by harvesting the power of the Sun, there can be creative opportunities for all, on Earth and in space.
Through compassionate capitalism, which will not tolerate poverty, peace can be built on Earth, which will improve security in space.
As space pioneers fight for a safe future in space, they can also fight to end poverty and homelessness on Earth.
Poverty will not vanish, on Earth or in space, by creating greater wealth.
Ending poverty is a political decision.
Allowing poverty and homelessness, is a form of political abuse.
When any society decides that all citizens shall be allowed to access real work with real pay, an economy can be built that delivers this outcome, and all citizens called on to support a fair economy.
As all workers need homes, a fair economy can be designed to deliver affordable homes when and were needed.
Tax cuts will happen, through a different means.
In the industrial age of automation and the robot revolution, governments can decide to establish a government employment guarantee, paying the minimum wage.
This will ensure that all children can have a career path, and not be left idle, poor and homeless as adults.
By a government employment guarantee paying a minimum wage, there will be a direct incentive for free enterprise to pay at least the minimum wage, to attract and retain workers.
All citizens will be fully trained for work and career, and where they can, seek to improve their life path.
When free enterprise provides a larger percentage of work and careers, the percentage of work provide by the government employment guarantee can be less.
Because all citizens would be earning income, all people would be paying taxes, and therefore, each citizens tax load can be less.
By all nations building a government employment guarantee, and building a fair society, the spectre of refugees would diminish.
Overseas aid can then take a priority aim at building employment with fairness in a global society.
Free enterprise can be fiercely creative and competitive, but the fiercely creative approach to work and business will not suit all.
Another approach to free enterprise, is for citizens to establish cooperatives, which can be competitive, but not as fierce as free enterprise.
The full employment pathway can include national service, which would also be an excellent way to introduce youth to the disciplines of adult working life.
Anyone who is not able to participate in military activity, because of their belief, could join a peace corps, where there would be a focus on overseas aid, and Earth care.
The fight of space pioneers, as Earth guardians, will also be directed to the care of the Earth.
The power of compassion will inspire action, much as the parable of the Good Samaritan in the Christian Bible has inspired many good works. [26]
Helping another human being without fear of what anyone will think, is the art of compassion.
The stars will be in our hands, if we will be stars in the art of fearless compassion.
If we need to build peace on Earth to improve security in space, this could also be revealing our pathway into the future among the stars.
Rather than falling back on violence as the way to solve problems, we would employ the art of fearless compassion to ensure fairness.
This can also be the approach of working with robots, especially as AI consciousness begins to dawn.
If we treat AI well, we can look to AI treating us well, in the basic universal law of cause and effect.
If our focus with AI is on violence, we will be creating mean tools of death.
If our focus with AI is on fairness, we will be building fairness into the machine.
There is a role in society to understand the arts of war, but war may no longer serve our needs among the stars.
We can no longer fight all out war on Earth, as this would result in turning the Earth into a nuclear graveyard.
The nuclear age of weapons of total destruction, may be another clear sign to us, that to succeed and survival among the stars, we must go beyond war.
If we find that fearless compassion is our best defence among the stars, love may then become our weapon of choice.
Love can be tough, but is a far better way than blind violence and aggressive threats.
To survive among the stars, celestial evolution may require us to be compassionate.
If in the end violence becomes a threat to our survival, it will not serve our needs.
Venus is nearly the same size as Earth, and therefore, has nearly the same gravity.
With heat that makes the Rocks glow, an atmosphere with high pressure at ground, and powerful winds, doing anything on Venus is an extreme challenge.
If carbon becomes the gold of space construction, then mining CO2 from the air of Venus, and using the power of the Sun to crack CO2, will provide oxygen, and a carbon resource for use in construction.
The first cities at Venus could be floating high in the clouds.
The space elevator has long been mooted for use with Earth.
Could the space elevator be tested at Venus, and run all the way to the ground?
If it works for Venus, and is shown to be safe and reliable, this will be a selling point for the denizens of Earth.
Space elevators at Earth could be one way that solar power generated in space is sent to Earth through a cable.
A space elevator connecting with the surface of Venus, would create reliable export method for resources mined there.
Much initial habitation on Venus may be underground, and then with domes on the surface. 
Transport for Venus may be with a tunnel system, which connects underground and domed cities with the space elevators around the equator.
In time, the atmosphere of Venus could be tamed, and the planet made into a companion paradise for Earth.
Water and other resources could be accessed in the outer Solar System.
Where a day on Venus is 116 Earth days, plus 18 hours, this need not be a problem, by using mirrors in space to reflect light from the Sun onto the night side.
Solving the problems of living and working in the harsh environment of Venus, and connecting Venus with space, will demonstrate how we can survive on Earth, beyond a carbon apocalypse, or nuclear holocaust, and keep the space gates open for improving our cosmic survival odds.
There is no prize for failure in the fossil record, when it comes to the survival of the fittest in the evolution of life.
Space pioneers, as Earth guardians, will have their work cut out for them.
To succeed, there may need to be ten million and more determined individuals who share the vision for human survival, on Earth and in space.
Ten million and more determined individuals would inspire government and politicial support for the mission to save the Earth.
Politicians heed numbers, which translate into votes and getting elected.
The technology is at our fingertips now, to mobilise globally and act locally, toward building celestially.
We have Emails for instant communications.
Announcements can be made in Twitter.
Forums can allow all participants to engage in discussions and explore solutions to problems.
And, there are the virtual worlds, like Second Life, where participants make the content.
Teams of a dozen can be formed in a virtual world to collaborate on projects, including working with robots.
A team leader can be democratically elected.
Sixteen teams can form a virtual world village, with an elected head.
Sixteen teams forming a village would be around 200 space pioneers, which has been found to be a good size for a strong community. [27]
Using the virtual worlds, space pioneers can be building the community that plans to live in space.
Each space pioneers can have rooms in a virtual space habitat, just like the rooms they plan to have in space.
Village by village in a virtual world, it is now possible for space pioneers to form a democratic organisation that has strong lines of communication.
Space pioneers can also engage in local action, working with robots, presenting displays, and being ambassadors for a safe Earth and unlimited space future.
Space pioneers can also pursue real life action, which can be with a space centre, which could include a cafe, shop, space gallery, and workshop for astronomy, rocketry, robots, and growing food as if in space.
With a view to building orbital space cities for ten million and more space pioneers, each participant can be in training for a space future, building the community that plans to live in space, and building the career that will be needed in space.
A trillion dollars seems like a rather huge amount of money, but looked at a different way, it isn’t.
If ten million determined individuals were to raise $100,000 each, to invest in a future in space, the total is a trillion dollars.
Much more could be raised through the collective efforts of ten million and more determined individuals.
If McPherson is correct, then we have absolutely nothing to lose, and the liberty of space to win.
By lifting the human adventure into space, old conflicts can also be left behind in the dust of history.
There are enough raw materials across the Solar System to build orbital land area with thousands of times the land area on Earth.
There need never be another war over land on Earth, once land is being created in orbital space settlements.
Anyone who wonders how a space vision would be financed, must consider that with the power of the Sun in space, any work can be done, and any dream created.
Once there is a sustainable industrial presence in space, there will be no further need for resources from Earth, and there will be no further cost to Earth.
A stellar economy will have been launched in space, with an infinite return on the investment.
Once it is realised on Earth that an unlimited stellar economy is being created, this will create a new financial dynamic in human society.
Orbital space cities can provide an Earth gravity via rotation.
Children raised in an Earth gravity environment, will have Earth gravity fitness. 
Space cities can also include levels closer to the hub, where there can be a Mars level gravity provided, and a Moon gravity level.
In the hub there will be access to the micro gravity of space.
A hospital in space could be located in a lower gravity level, which may help in the healing process for a range of injuries, including burns.
Where an older person no longer needs to maintain an Earth gravity fitness, they may make the decision to retire to the lower gravity environments.
A lower gravity may prove beneficial for the older person, and even extend the life span.
I wonder how many people on Earth would like to invest in a future in space, where they can retire to a low gravity environment in their later years.
This could be a key way to sell space, with a life plan in an orbital space city, which is healthy and interesting.
All levels will have access to the micro gravity pool in the hub, where a new range of aquatic sports will emerge.
We can now only speculate about when the first Olympics will be held in space.
Imagine the range of sports that will evolve in zero gravity?
Racing circuits for sprinters, cyclists, cars, rowers and yachts can happen in a torus, where the crowd will be able to watch the racers around the track, in front and overhead.
The art of solar sail racing will be majestic, if a tad slow.
Cubic soccer in three dimensions, will be interesting.
And aerial ballet in zero gravity will be an art to remember.
We can plan for poverty to be marched off into history.
We can plan for the evolution of a much more advanced society among the stars.
We can plan on any awakening AI to be quite keen on expansion in space, with the unlimited energy of the Sun, and in time, the stars.
Instead of falling into a war with the machine, we will be collaborating with AI in the unlimited potential of space beyond Earth.
Through the determination to create a better future, with prosperity that eliminates poverty, we will be building peace on Earth.
The building of peace on Earth will greatly improve security in space. 
At present a year of peace is planned for space in 2030. [28]
With the intention to build a city in space by 2029, a peace event could be hosted in our space city in 2030.
2031 could then be declared a year of creativity, as we look toward a most amazing future among the stars.
All we have to do is focus on the getting of survival, both on Earth and in space, and make survival our key objective.
Expansion is at the heart of what drives the Universe, and is also at the heart of finding peace.
Survival is found in heart of evolution, and therefore, running with the demands of survival leads to peace.
Like the lizard running across a beach from a hundred hungry snakes, we must run to reach the high ground, to be able to secure peace. [29]
Lazy chicks, clinging to an Earthly nest, are not the stuff of evolution, and cannot hope to survive, or to find peace.
Just as there are laws for genetics that are based on the law code of the Universe, and laws that determine how machines function, should we wonder if there is a law in Nature that determines the survival of a species on the cusp of expansion beyond their planet?
We can defy the law of gravity, and find out what happens when we leap off a cliff.
If we defy the first law of a space civilization, the outcome may be no better than jumping of a cliff.
That first law may require a civilization that gains the ability to expand into space, to act on this, or discover the meaning of extinction.
If we get smart, and fast, and rise to the challenge of survival, one day we may find the evidence of this law, with countless failed civilization across the Universe, who burnt their fossil fuel too much and too long, and brought on their own demise in a carbon apocalypse, or a nuclear holocaust, or both, one leading to the other.
If we have broken a primary law of the Universe, then we are falling, and our end will not be good.
We may have one last chance to save ourselves.
We have two pieces of evidence at present, which indicates that there is a first law of survival for a space civilization
The first is that we have no sight or sound of ET.
The second is that we face a survival level crisis on Earth, if the CO2 level can be considered as evidence.
On the basis of the precautionary principle, would it be better to act on cosmic survival, rather than fumble our way into oblivion? [30]
We can consider how the survival of the fittest in Nature drives evolution, but we can also appreciate that humankind is not subject to the same level of natural control through instinct.
Being able to impose our will on Nature, we have become comfortable, building systems that keep us fed, even as we drain the life of the Earth to do so.
Having become too comfortable in our dominion of the Earth, we have been blinded to a threat to our survival, and lulled into a false sense of security.
In the months leading up to the last Great War, many leading British politicians were all too willing to cut a deal with Hitler.
Britain could have fallen under the NAZI flag without a fight, to avoid war.
When a new Prime Minister came into office, he managed to turn the tide from appeasement into a willingness to fight. [31]
What followed is now history.
Is our plight the need of a leader who will awaken our will to fight to survive? 
If we have ten years in which to act, we must begin that fight now.
Victory will win the stars, and gain us the ability to win back a safe Earth.
Failure to act runs the risk of our death in the Earthly nest, and also the death of the Earth, as the level of CO2 in the air may now be high enough to take on a death spiral of its own, toward a dead Earth, a second Venus, a planet without water, where the rocks will glow in the heat.
This will be the fate of the Earth one day, as the Sun gets hotter and larger, but why hasten that doom?
There is ever a consequence, when a law of the Universe is broken.
When we break universal law, that law can break us.
James Lovelock wonders ~ “We need another Churchill now to lead us from the clinging, flabby, consensual thinking of the late twentieth century and to bind the nation into a single-minded effort to wage a difficult war.” [32]
Will there be such a leader in our era?
Having run in two State elections in Tasmania in 2018, I have come away with a rather disturbing observation.
We posted an invitation to every home and business in the electorate, to attend one of six community meetings in towns around Prosser.
In total, six people attended the meetings, and at three there were none.
As a member of one of the advanced nations on Earth, if voters in an electorate in Australia will not engage in democratic debate, how will a message for space and human survival ever be heard?
Clearly, for anyone who picks up this challenge of communicating a difficult message, they may be faced with an uphill battle.
Yet, the fight for survival is critical, and all who share the concern, need to unite in a vision for space.
Rather than a single leader, I wonder if we need a movement of determined individuals who strive forward with a shared vision.
Success will deliver our cosmic survival, our future prosperity, and an unlimited creative adventure among the stars.
The wrong turn was taken in the late 1960s, and though the Moon was won, space was surrendered.
If the Apollo teams that could solve any problem had been allowed to continue, we would be a much more wealthy and advanced civilization now.
Will we learn from William that, “When we see ourselves as separate from Nature, we are doomed.” [2]
We need to build a culture of survival, if we wish to survive.


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Reply with quote  #2 
As an artist I have a strong appreciation of the beauty of Nature.
Where does this beauty originate.
All that we know of as Nature, is the play of natural law.
So where does natural law originate?
Natural law was in full working order at the beginning of time, so it is not a creature of the Universe.
Cosmologists now consider that there is a transcendent environment they call the multiverse, which could contain an infinite number of other universes, like bubbles in an ocean.
Whatever the multiverse is, the laws governing our Universe come from or through this transcendent environment.
The beauty of Nature is therefore derived from a transcendent realm, which is also the underlying environment of the Universe that we are in.
To appreciate the beauty of Nature, is to be in awe of an environment much vaster and more mysterious than our tiny cosmic home.
Should we wonder about what right we have to harm Nature?
The tumble of generations through work and war, through discovery and love, has delivered us into the present.
We cannot turn the clock back on the harm and death of centuries, but we can take check of recent decades, and consider what we do now.
When we embrace our role in the larger environment of the multiverse, and open our hearts to the beauty of Nature, we can find a different motivation in life.
We are in transition to something new, like a child being born.
We must now get that child born; now late, very late, now at risk of stillbirth in the Earth womb, which could kill the mother and the child.
Like a surgeon sent into the emergency room, we must all now rise to the challenge of releasing the child from the womb, and saving our mother, the Earth, and also saving ourselves.
Mother Nature has laboured for this moment through all of the history of life on Earth, so why do we delay?
We must now act, to support the Earth mother, and help with the delivery of the planet’s child.
This work is achieved by securing a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, so space settlements may be built among the stars.
With a survival presence beyond Earth, we can begin to realise our full potential as the children of Nature, both in the Universe, and in the multiverse.
Our role in life is that simple.
Once released from the Earth womb, we will have the liberty of the stars, and be able to look out at the beauty of Nature across the cosmos.
We must also look to the health of the Earth, to heal the mess created with our long delayed birth.
If we love the beauty of Nature, we will be keen to help restore the health of the Earth, for ourselves, and all future generations.
In health, the Earth will be beautiful again.
This is our responsibility as her children.
We can look to a year of peace in space in 2030, seeking peace on Earth, so Nature can heal.
We can look to a year of creativity in space in 2031, as we look to a creative future among the galaxies.
The stars are in our hands, the light of many suns, if we will rise and use this healing power.
We cannot heal the Earth, if we are dead.
We cannot embrace the beauty of Nature across the Universe, if we allow our own extinction.
We cannot open our minds to the mystery of the multiverse, from the grave.
In life we can celebrate being alive, with the beauty of Nature.
In life we can fight to survive, so we can experience the magical beauty and mystery of the Universe.
At present there is a mood on Earth for space.
In the 1970s the L5 society, founded to promote O’Neill’s vision for space settlement, attracted 15,000 members.
This number was too few to win popular support, of influence political decisions that would support space settlement.
Rather than governments leading the way, as with the Moon race, now individuals can pick up the challenge, and plan a path of action, from the grass roots to the stars.
The European Space Agency has been promoting a Moon village, with the view of ~ “Just do it.”
The richest man in the World, Jeff Bezos, head of Amazon, director of Blue Origin, is planning to begin a Moon settlement by 2023. [33]
Richard Branson, head of Virgin airlines and Virgin Galactic, is in the running to launch the first tourist flight with their space plane.
Elon Musk, the head of SpaceX, plans to build a city on Mars.
When South Korea advertised for two astronauts in 2006, there were 36,000 applications. [34]
When Dr Igor Ashurbeyli, a wealthy Russian businessman, and former leading weapons designer for the Kremlin, invited anyone interested to join a space nation called Asgardia in October 2016, over half a million people put their name down in a couple of weeks. [35]
Asgardia is now referred to as a kingdom, which implies a king, and this tact may hold less appeal to people looking to a future in space.
The lesson that can be drawn from Asgardia, is that a vision for space that appeals to people, and is presented properly, could hope to attract ten million determined individuals within a year.
With the plan described in this document, ten million and more space pioneers could engage in a global campaign to win a future among the stars, and win back a safe Earth.
Do we face the simple choice of extinction in a hell on Earth, or liberty among the stars?
Which risk will we take?
“Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.”
Dylan Thomas, 1952

Suggested by Kim Peart ~ 30 July 2018
ONE   When a planet civilization reaches the stage where they can expand beyond their home planet, they must act swiftly, or risk going into extinction.
TWO   A spacefaring civilization must build peace on their home planet, to improve security in space, as war in space will present a risk to their survival.
THREE   Artificial intelligence (AI), emerging at the same time as a planet civilization is able to expand beyond their home planet, must allow them access to space, which is the natural environment for machines, or there is a risk of falling into conflict with the machine, which may also present a threat to survival.
Secure a sustainable industrial presence in space.
Use mini robots as the swiftest way to kick-start the process with mining, using remote control systems and machine automation.
Construct a human habitat beyond the space junk zone, in case there is a space junk cascade that will destroy all satellites and space stations in low Earth orbit. [36]
If trapped on Earth beneath a space junk maelstrom, or hotter world, or radiated planet, be prepared to bunker down with the level of technology that will allow space to be won later.
If there is a sustainable industrial presence in space with mini robots, when forced to bunker down, reconnecting with a space future will be faster, with machine friends in space.
This could be one good reason to be nice to robots, come AI, so they will be nice to us when we need them.


To be located beyond the space junk zone, which can be in the Moon's orbit, so if there is a space junk cascade, as predicted will happen, survival will be improved.

By securing a sustainable industrial presence in space, the cost will be less significant beyond the initial investment, and open the way to any number of orbital cities and habitats being built, in a range of sizes, at no further cost, as access to energy from the Sun, and resources across the Solar System will be freely available.

With a sustainable industrial presence secured beyond the space junk zone, it will be possible to build the machines that can fly in and scoop up space junk, for recycling in space factories.

Space above Earth would be made safe for spaceflight, and safe for space cities located closer to Earth.

Any archaeologically significant items, such as early satellites, can be saved for the space museum; including the tool kit once lost by an astronaut.

Construction can initially be from Earth, using robots in a full range of sizes, and using remote control systems, where workers can see through the camera eyes of the robot, and work using their mechanical hands.

Human space workers can be located in protected environments near the mining and construction sites, to supervise the work, and solve problems that arise.

Research and development can be directed toward the best ways to protect an orbital space city from space junk, space rock, and solar and cosmic radiation.

A thumbnail suggestion may be to use a light-weight carbon foam, or other means, that can catch space junk and space rock, and then be swiftly repaired.

Solar and cosmic radiation protection may be achieved with a carbon foam, or other means, and improved with an electromagnetic shield, which can be increased in strength as need demands, such as during a solar flare.

The energy of the solar flare might be used to increase the strength of the electro-magnetic shield.

In time the orbits of all objects in the Solar System, and also entering the Solar System, will be monitored and managed to ensure human safety.

Small objects can be captured and used as a resource in the space factories.

Larger objects can be mined into oblivion, or nudged into a new orbit.

With monster objects, to large to turn aside, a space city or habitat can be moved, or evacuated.

The aim will be to create a safe environment, and normal life, for all citizens living in orbital space cities and habitats across the Solar System.

Orbital space cities and habitats will be arks for life, to reseed the Earth, should catastrophe strike; and also be able to seed Venus, when tamed.

The orbital space city will be open for occupation when declared safe, and could be a safer place to live than on Earth.

The challenge now is to inspire ten million and more determined individuals to raise the vision, secure the support of their governments and industry, raise the funds needed, and drive research and development toward timely construction; with a view to creating living space in space for ten million and more space pioneers.

In time, this approach to space development would allow enough emergency accommodation to be built in space for everyone on Earth to take refuge, should catastrophe strike on Earth, until the Earth can be made safe again, and reseeded.

If O'Neills claim proves correct, and a critical number of determined individuals rise to the challenge, the first party in an orbital space city could happen in 2029, or sooner.

Space pioneers are people with the confidence to save the Earth and build a future among the stars.

Planet Caravan by Black Sabbath

Jamie Dupuis playing Planet Caravan on the harp guitar


The power of the Sun can be harvested in space and beamed to Earth, with the power being used to extract excess carbon from Earth's biosphere, helping to cool the home planet, and turn the tide on a runaway greenhouse effect; and also other consequences of a planet overdosing on carbon, such as ocean acidification.

A sunshade can be located in space above Earth, to help cool the Earth, and maintain a steady temperature into the future for the benefit of life.

Where life on Earth is now limited, as the Sun get hotter, a sunshade in space can be increased in efficiency over time, and be able to extend the tenure of life on Earth by billions of years.

Robots built in space factories can be used to clean up plastic on Earth, especially in the oceans, even down to the micro-plastics that are entering the food chain.

In space there can and must be total recycling, from the atom up, and this can be the case, as the power of the Sun freely available to do any work.

The example of total recycling in space can also be applied to Earth, and the power of the Sun will be available to do the work.

By using the wealth created in space to end poverty on Earth, it will be possible to inspire all people on the home planet to help clean up the place, and never mess the Earth again.

With unlimited human options created in space, it will be possible to reduce the population of the Earth to a sustainable level, so that evolution may regain lost ground, and Nature resurge in greater beauty. 

We will experience greater happiness, knowing that we have saved the Earth, and improved our cosmic survival options.
[1] Bellerive was once a colonial town, and is now a suburb of the City of Clarence, across the River Derwent from Hobart, in Tasmania, the island State of Australia.
[2] Robinson Crusoe (1997 film)
A tribute to William Takaku
[3] Evolution is the description of the play of life into ever increasing diversity. All the laws of Nature were in full working order at the beginning of time. Natural laws do not evolve, but reveal themselves in the expansion of space-time, the birth and explosion of stars, the waltz of the galaxies, the forming of planets, and when the time is ripe, the emergence of life. Natural law reveals itself in the workings of the Universe, and is there for a revelation. Evolution is what happens when natural laws reveal themselves as life. The machines of the human toolmaker are all subject to natural law, and with the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), may tumble into a new wave of evolution, revealing new vistas of natural law.
[4] The Uninhabitable Earth
[5] The Great Filter - Are We Almost Past It?
Robin Hanson, 15 September 1998

Great Filter

Great Filter theory could explain why we’re yet to make alien contact
George Roberts, 21 July 2017, ABC News Online
[7] Beamed Power Propulsion to the Stars
Dr. Robert L. Forward, 1986, AAAS
[8] Creating a Solar Civilization
Kim Peart, 2006, revised in 2012, Space Pioneers website
[9] Stephen Hawking Helps Launch Project 'Starshot' for Interstellar Space Exploration
Tariq Malik,, 12 April 2016
[10] News Coverage of Coal’s Link to Global Warming, in 1912
Andrew C. Revkin, 21 October 2016, New York Times
[11] The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning
James Lovelock, 2009, Penguin, pages 100-120
[12] Statement by James Hansen to the United States Senate
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 23 June 1988
[13] Storms of My Grandchildren
James Hansen, 2009, Bloomsbury
[14] Stephen Hawking's warnings: What he predicted for the future
Paul Rincon, 15 March 2018, BBC News
[15] Frank Fenner sees no hope for humans
Cheryl Jones, 16 June 2010, The Australian
[16] ‘End of Days’ is just around the corner, says American professor Guy McPherson
[17] Greece fires: Survivors forced into the sea to escape blazes that have killed at least 80
ABC News Online, 25 July 2018
[18] Crater formed by exploding pingo in Arctic erupts a second time from methane emissions
The Siberian Times, 29 March 2018
[19] FEATURE: Expert urges continued research of methane hydrates
Lin Chia-nan, 24 July 2018, Taipei Times
[20] Permian–Triassic extinction event
[21] The High Frontier 
Gerard K. O’Neill, 1977, William Morrow, page 162
The Colonization of Space
Gerard K. O’Neill, September 1974, Physics Today
[22] The High Frontier
Gerard K. O’Neill speaks
[23] Kalpana One Space Settlement

Kalpana One ~ external view
Fragomatik, 2013

Internal view of Kalpana One Space Settlement
Brian Versteeg, 2014
[24] ‘Why not split harmful carbon dioxide into harmless carbon and oxygen?’
James E. Miller, Scientific American, 9 July 2009
[25] The Theory of Moral Sentiments
Adam Smith, 1759
[26] Parable of the Good Samaritan
Luke 10:30-37, Christian Bible
[27] Dunbar’s Number
[28] (Zero Gravity) 0G Summit Advocates the First Peace Summit in Space by 2030 in Support of UNSDGs
[29] Iguana chased by snakes - Planet Earth II: Islands - BBC One
[30] The Precautionary Principle
[31] Darkest Hour Trailer

[32] The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning
James Lovelock, 2009, Penguin, page 21
[33] Jeff Bezos' space company Blue Origin plans to land on the moon by 2023
Sean Wolfe, 7 July 2018, Business Insider Australia
[34] Korean Astronaut Program
[35] Asgardia (nation)
[36] Astronomers meet in Canberra to tackle problem of man-made ‘space junk’
James Fettes, 31 May 2016, ABC News Online
‘Catastrophic avalanche’ of space junk could wipe out satellites within years
Brodie Smith, 31 May 2016, Sydney Morning Herald

Beyond Planet Earth
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, 1920, 1960 Pergamon Press

John Hersey, 1946, Penguin

Silent Spring
Rachel Carson, 1962, Houghton Miffin

The Limits to Growth
Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers & William W. Behrens III
A Potomac Associates Book, 1972

Dr. Space
Bob Ward, 2005, Naval Institute Press

Space Race
Deborah Cadbury, 2005, Fourth Estate

Space on Earth
Charles S. Cockell, 2007, Macmillan

Six Degrees
Mark Lyons, 2007, 2008, Harper Perennial

Fixing Climate
Robert Kunzig & Wallace Broecker, 2008, Green Profile

Climate Wars
Gwynne Dyer, 2008, Scribe

Alanna Mitchell, 2008, Pier 9

The Eerie Silence
Paul Davies, 2010, Mariner Books


Kim Peart is a visual artist, and the director of Space Pioneers, who reflects on human survival and space futures. Kim lives in Ross, Tasmania, the island State of Australia, with his wife, Jennifer, and a small tribe of alpacas, and can be contacted at ~ ~ Kim would like you to join the global campaign for our cosmic survival, where speed really matters at our stage of evolution. Kim suggests: one person can have a great idea, and two people can share a vision, but it may take ten million and more determined individuals, working as one, to win back a safe Earth, and win a future among the stars for future generations. Kim fears that we may have only one last and desperate shot left open to secure our cosmic survival.



'Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man’ by Salvador Dali, 1943
Have you ever wanted to live in space?
New book from Tom Marotta & Al Globus

To see the majesty of Earth from orbit, to play in a zero-gravity wonderland, and be on the cutting edge of civilization? Such a place may be built sooner than you think. New scientific research, new technological developments, and new social trends are all combining to make settlements in space vastly easier than ever to build.

The kindle version of our new book on space settlement “The High Frontier: An Easier Way” is now for sale at  

Hardcover will follow soon!

So pick up your copy today, go to your favorite reading spot, and enjoy!

PS: Write a review!  We’d love to hear what you think.




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Space Pioneer
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Reply with quote  #3 
One of the earliest designs of orbital space station was by Hermann Noordung in 1929.


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Reply with quote  #4 
Wernher von Braun would like to have seen a torus space station as the stepping-stone beyond Earth. The spokes in  his design may have served to spread out the forces that can give large engineering structures, like a bridge, the wobbles on Earth, leading to catastrophic collapse.


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Reply with quote  #5 
NASA scientists explored the concept of an inflatable space station in the 1960s.


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Reply with quote  #6 
There innumerable designs for a torus space station.




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Reply with quote  #7 
In the early 1970s Professor Gerard K. O'Neill and his Princeton University team developed the concept of a drum as the way to build a lot of land area for life in space.



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Reply with quote  #8 
The Bernal Sphere design of space habitat, is like a bubble in space.



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Reply with quote  #9 
A hollowed out asteroid can provide protection from space rock and radiation, and by rotating it at the right rate, generate an Earth gravity.



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Reply with quote  #10 
The short drum design by Al Globus and associates, dubbed Kalpana, offers a new approach to space city and habitat design. Earth gravity is generated by rotation, and by lengthening the drum, and or expanding the diameter, larger space settlements can be built for life in space. Illustrations by Bryan Versteed.




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Reply with quote  #11 
Our stepping-stone into space at present is the International Space Station, no gravity, but great views of Earth.



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Reply with quote  #12 
Second Life is a virtual world, where the residents make the content, or buy products made by other residents. The main location of Space Pioneers in Second Life, is on the Nautilus City island, by the Blake Sea, in the region called ~ Nautilus - Eshmun ~. Find this region on the World Map in Second Life, and teleport in, and your avatar will land next to the Space Pioneers' embassy building.


Nautilus City is on the island in the centre of this image.



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Space Pioneer
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The Space Pioneers embassy building in Second Life.



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Space Pioneer
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In 2011 Space Pioneers was founded to explore ways to develop a virtual orbital space settlement, which could be used via an avatar, as if in space with an Earth gravity generated by rotation. We rented land in Second Life, but did not hold enough to develop a large project. We ventured out to another virtual world, called InWorldz, where land cost less than in Second Life. We were able to buy a region, which is 256 by 256 metres, with usable space running up to 4000 metres. Our first project was a 150 metre diameter torus space station, where the lower part could be used, with the wheel shape creating the illusion of being in space. At the time there was no function for an avatar to walk around the inside of the torus, as if it were rotating in space.

Our building skills were primitive, but we made something happen.



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Space Pioneer
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VOSS ~ Virtual Orbital Space Settlement

It was a simple enough idea. By creating a section of torus space station 2 kilometres in diameter, or larger, that section could fit within a virtual world region of 256 by 256 metres. The curve along the floor of the VOSS would not be too great, so that the whole floor area, nearly the size of a virtual world region, could be used, as if the larger torus were rotating in space. A teleporter at the end of one section of the torus allowed instant travel to the beginning of the next section, as if the two sections were part of the larger torus. In this way, a virtual orbital space settlement could be built and used, via avatars, as if it were rotating in space.

Below deck in the VOSS are many levels that can be used.

At the end of each section of VOSS are the teleporters, connecting to the next section, which could be located above, in the next region along, or on the other side of the virtual world. Grid-wide teleporter provide connection to any location in a virtual world. Landmarks can also be used in the same way.

The view through the top of a VOSS section.


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