Space Pioneers
Calendar Latest Topics Chat

  Author   Comment   Page 4 of 4      Prev   1   2   3   4

Avatar / Picture

Space Pioneer
Posts: 197
Reply with quote  #46 
Space Pioneers

Space Pioneers is a registered name in Australia for our organisation, which is dedicated to the cosmic survival of humankind, by securing a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth. To achieve this, we seek the participation of ten million and more space pioneers, determined individuals who will rise to the challenge.

In the light of warnings about a looming crisis on Earth with the destabilising of the carbon balance and a subsequent increase in heat, which is feared to be rapid, we seek immediate action with a ten year program to deliver cosmic survival for all future generations. We propose the development of a mini-robot space program to achieve this, as mini-robots will cost less to send into space, can be worked with via remote control systems, can begin to mine for resources on the Moon and asteroids, and use the energy of the Sun for power to establish industry in space, where larger robots can be built to construct human scale habitats, and the shuttle craft to send to Earth to collect passengers for space.

All going well, the first orbital city in space can be ready for a party in 2029, and then an event with the year of peace in space in 2030, and our own declared year of creativity in space in 2031.

With cosmic survival secured, it will be possible to also fight to win back a safe Earth, and begin the long process of turning Venus into a second Earth. The real home for future generations, will be in space, in orbital space habitats scattered across the Solar System.

Whatever nationality you are, whatever organisation you belong to, are you a space pioneer? If yes, help secure our cosmic survival. We need ten million and more space pioneers, who will work toward creating living space in space for ten million and more space pioneers.

Once there is a sustainable industrial presence beyond Earth, there will be no further call on resources from Earth, and an infinite return on the investment. We can start working out the shape of a stellar economy now, where there will be no poverty, in space or on Earth, and which will lead to peace on Earth, and improve security in space.

To achieve the impossible, we invite space pioneers to engage with us in the virtual worlds, including Second Life, with a global campaign to win our future in space, and win back a safe Earth. As space pioneers reach for the stars, they can also engage in work on Earth to improve the environment, and send poverty into history.

We either secure our cosmic survival among the stars, or remain at risk of extinction on Earth. Will you rise to the challenge?



Avatar / Picture

Space Pioneer
Posts: 197
Reply with quote  #47 
Further Notes & News Stories

Earth at risk of 'hothouse climate' where efforts to reduce emissions will have no impact, study finds
Elise Pianegonda, 7 August 2018, ABC News Online
"If humans cause the earth's global average temperature to increase by a further 1 degree Celsius, the world could face a "hothouse" climate and trigger further warming — even when all human emissions cease, an international study has found. The study titled Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene, which involved researchers from around the world, was published in the international journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). It found the Earth was heading for a tipping point, known as a "hothouse" climate, which could lead to average temperatures up to 5C higher than pre-industrial temperatures and rises in sea level of between 10 and 60 metres.”

'Many parts of Earth could become uninhabitable': Study's grim warning
Blake Foden, 7 August 2018, Sydney Morning Herald

"Many parts of Earth could become uninhabitable for humans, with the planet at risk of entering an irreversible "hothouse" climate. That's the alarming warning from an international team of scientists, including Australian National University professor Will Steffen, in a study published on Tuesday. As large parts of eastern Australia battle drought and Europe is gripped by a heatwave, Professor Steffen said current efforts to combat global warming would not be enough to meet the emission-reduction targets set by governments in the Paris Agreement, which may be insufficient to prevent the dangerous scenario anyway. The study warns that Earth is already more than halfway towards the point of no return. Global average temperatures are just over one degree above pre-industrial temperatures, but rising by 0.17 degrees every 10 years. The study warns that Earth is already more than halfway towards the point of no return. Global average temperatures are just over one degree above pre-industrial temperatures, but rising by 0.17 degrees every 10 years. Professor Steffen said if temperatures rose to two degrees above pre-industrial levels, a level within Paris Agreement targets, it could trigger natural processes that would cause further warming of the Earth even if all human emissions ceased. If that happened, global average temperatures may reach up to five degrees above pre-industrial levels - the hottest temperatures experienced in more than 1.2 million years. Sea levels could also rise between 10 and 60 metres, threatening coastal areas. "Many parts of the planet could become uninhabitable for humans," Professor Steffen said. "... Sitting on our hands means we are at risk of driving the Earth - and human wellbeing - beyond an irreversible point of no return.""

The report ~

Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene

Will SteffenJohan RockströmKatherine RichardsonTimothy M. LentonCarl FolkeDiana LivermanColin P. SummerhayesAnthony D. BarnoskySarah E. CornellMichel CrucifixJonathan F. DongesIngo FetzerSteven J. LadeMarten SchefferRicarda Winkelmann, and Hans Joachim Schellnhuber

World is finally waking up to climate change, says 'hothouse Earth’ author
Jonathan Watts, 17 August 2018, The Guardian

"The scorching temperatures and forest fires of this summer’s heatwave have finally stirred the world to face the onrushing threat of global warming, claims the climate scientist behind the recent “hothouse Earth” report. Following an unprecedented 270,000 downloads of his study, Johan Rockström, executive director of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, said he had not seen such a surge of interest since 2007, the year the Nobel prize was awarded to Al Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “I think that in future people will look back on 2018 as the year when climate reality hit,” said the veteran scientist. “This is the moment when people start to realise that global warming is not a problem for future generations, but for us now.”"


'We've been warned': Swelling Northern Hemisphere heatwaves bring unprecedented fires
Lisa Millar & Conor Duffy, 19 August 2018, ABC News Online
"Firefighters in Sweden have faced their worst bushfire season ever on the back of the country's hottest July since records began more than 260 years ago. Wildfires burned more than 24,000 hectares of land, with authorities battling 80 fires across the Nordic country at one point. For Stockholm's chief fire officer Peter Arnevall, July 15 heralded a new breed of firestorm he had not experienced before, with blazes above the Arctic Circle. "We've never seen anything like this," he said. "It was so many fires at the same time and they were so large, it gave us a sense of hopelessness, because we didn't have enough resources within Sweden to handle it.”” ~ FILMS

War in space 'inevitable' because there's so much money to be made, expert warns
Antony Funnell, 24 August 2018, ABC News Online
"A leading Australian space law expert has warned conflict over space assets is "inevitable", and more needs to be done now to avert the potential for hostility. Professor Melissa de Zwart, the Dean of Law at the University of Adelaide, says growing commercial interest in the mining of precious minerals on asteroids and planets has heightened the danger. "I think you have to be a realist about that," she said. "Where you have resources, where you have competition for those resources, where you have investment of money in the extraction of those resources ... there will be an expectation of security around that investment.”” ~ FILMS


Avatar / Picture

Space Pioneer
Posts: 197
Reply with quote  #48 
We have long been warned, and done nothing ~ now we must act


The Braidwood Dispatch and Mining Journal (NSW : 1888 - 1954) 
Eunice Foote's Pioneering Research On CO2 And Climate Warming
Raymond P. Sorenson [1]
Search and Discovery Article #70092 (2011) Posted January 31, 2011
*Manuscript received and accepted January 11, 2011
[1] Independent, Tulsa, OK (

According to conventional wisdom John Tyndall was the first to measure the variation in absorption of radiant energy by atmospheric gases and the first to predict the impact on climate of small changes in atmospheric gas composition. Overlooked by modern researchers is the work of Eunice Foote, who, three years prior to the start of Tyndall's laboratory research, conducted similar experiments on absorption of radiant energy by atmospheric gases, such as CO2 and water vapor. The presentation of her report at a major scientific convention in 1856 was accompanied by speculation that even modest increases in the concentration of CO2 could result in significant atmospheric warming.


In recent years the increase in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 due to human activity and its potential effect on global climate have become a focus of scientific research and a major international topic of political controversy. CO2 in the atmosphere very efficiently absorbs radiant energy, and increases in the concentration of that gas over time as a result of the burning of fossil fuels and other human activity is projected to cause global climate warming.

Credit for the first recognition of these concepts is routinely given to John Tyndall, who published a series of papers on this and related topics beginning in 1859 (Fleming, 1998).

Unrecognized by modern researchers is a study by Eunice Foote that was presented at the 1856 AAAS annual meeting in Albany, New York, three years prior to Tyndall's first report. Her research was similar to that of Tyndall and resulted in similar conclusions, but it was not formally published. It is known today only from a journalistic summary published in an annual review of world-wide scientific achievements. The text of that review article is reproduced here to make it more readily available and to give proper credit to Eunice Foote for her innovative research.

John Tyndall's Groundbreaking Research

John Tyndall began his experiments on the absorption of radiant energy by gases and reported his initial results to the Royal Society of London in 1859. He announced that "Different gases are thus shown to intercept radiant heat in different degrees," although in that first paper he did not provide quantitative results or specify which gases were the subject of investigation. In an effort to claim priority for his research, Tyndall included the following comment: "With the exception of the celebrated memoir of M. Pouillet on Solar Radiation through the atmosphere, nothing, so far as I am aware, has been published on the transmission of radiant heat through gaseous bodies. We know nothing of the effect even of air upon heat radiated from terrestrial sources." He also stated that: "With regard to the action of other gases upon heat, we are not, so far as I am aware, possessed of a single experiment" (Tyndall, 1859; Wells, 1860, p. 174-175).

In 1861, Tyndall provided quantitative analyses indicating that CO2, water vapor, and hydrocarbon gases, such as methane, were extremely efficient absorbers of radiant energy, as compared with the oxygen and nitrogen that make up the bulk of the atmosphere. He also speculated that changes in the concentration of those gases could have an impact on climate. (Tyndall, 1861). The numerous publications by Tyndall on heat and other topics related to climate change have been covered in depth by Fleming (1998).

Eunice Foote's Forgotten Work

At the 10th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Albany in 1856, Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institution read a paper on behalf of author Mrs. Eunice Foote. The following summary of Mrs. Foote's paper was reported by David A. Wells in the 1857 volume of his Annual of Scientific Discovery ... for 1856:

"Prof. Henry then read a paper by Mrs. Eunice Foote, prefacing it with a few words, to the effect that science was of no country and of no sex. The sphere of woman embraces not only the beautiful and the useful, but the true. Mrs. Foote had determined, first, that the action of the rays increases with the density of the air. She has taken two glass cylinders of the same size, containing thermometers. Into one the air was condensed, and from the other air was exhausted. When they were of the same temperature the cylinders were placed side by side in the sun, and the thermometers in the condensed air rose more than twenty degrees higher than those in the rarified air. This effect of rarefaction must contribute to produce the feebleness of heating power in the sun's rays on the summits of lofty mountains. Secondly, the effect of the sun's rays is greater in moist than in dry air. In one cylinder the air was saturated with moisture, in the other dried with chloride of lime; both were placed in the sun, and a difference of about twelve degrees was observed. This high temperature of sunshine in moist air is frequently noticed; for instance, in the intervals between summer showers. The isothermal lines on the earth's surface are doubtless affected by the moisture of the air giving power to the sun, as well as by the temperature of the ocean yielding the moisture. Thirdly, a high effect of the sun's rays is produced in carbonic acid gas. One receiver being filled with carbonic acid, the other with common air, the temperature of the gas in the sun was raised twenty degrees above that of the air. The receiver containing the gas became very sensibly hotter than the other, and was much longer in cooling. An atmosphere of that gas would give to our earth a much higher temperature; and if there once was, as some suppose, a larger proportion of that gas in the air, an increased temperature must have accompanied it, both from the nature of the gas and the increased density of the atmosphere. Mrs. Foote had also tried the heating effect of the sun's rays on hydrogen and oxygen, and found the former to be less, the latter more, susceptible to the heating action of sunlight" (Wells, 1857, p. 159-160).

Unfortunately, Eunice Foote did not publish a paper on her findings in the AAAS Proceedings volume for the 1856 meeting (AAAS, 1857), and there is no mention of either Eunice Foote or of Professor Henry's oral presentation in that volume. Judging by the opening comments from Joseph Henry as reported by Wells, it is not obvious that a woman scientist in that time period would have been given an opportunity to present her own work or publish a paper. Nevertheless, her laboratory results showing enhanced absorption of radiation by CO2 are in the published record via the report by Wells (1857), two years before Tyndall started his laboratory work in 1859. It is not certain from the language used whether the potential for atmospheric warming due to rising CO2 levels was part of Edna Foote's presentation or whether it was speculation by Wells using journalistic license, but either way that concept was also clearly stated and in print as of 1857.

Eunice Newton Foote

The affiliation of Mrs. Foote was not mentioned by Wells (1857), but it is likely that she was Eunice Newton Foote, the wife of Elisha Foote (Wikipedia, 2010) of Seneca Falls, New York. Evidence of other scientific work by Eunice Foote has not been found, but she is known to have served on the editorial committee for the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, an early and influential meeting of the women's rights movement (Wikipedia, 2011).

Elisha Foote (1809-1883) was a judge, inventor, and mathematician who later (1868-1869) served as commissioner of the U. S. Patent Office. Elisha Foote was listed in the 1856 AAAS Proceedings volume as a new member elected at the Albany meeting (AAAS, 1857, p. xlvi). "Judge Foot" also presented a paper at the 1856 AAAS meeting, on the heating power of the sun's rays, as reported by Wells (1857, p. 159). It stands to reason that the separately presented papers from Eunice Foote and Elisha Foote could have been the result of a collaborative research effort.

Elisha and Eunice Foote were the parents of Mary Foote Henderson (1846-1931), the wife of John B. Henderson, who served as U. S. Senator from Missouri (1862-69), and who introduced the 13th amendment to the U. S. Constitution that abolished slavery. Mary Foote Henderson later became a leader in the real estate development of Washington, D. C., in particular the Meridian Hill area (Wikipedia, 2011).

David Wells and The Annual of Scientific Discovery

The Annual of Scientific Discovery, published in Boston by Gould and Lincoln, was a serial book-length review of scientific progress in the year preceding publication. It attempted to cover the full breadth of scientific endeavor from all of the scientific journals of North America and Europe, as well as reports presented at scientific conferences and important patents. From the time of its first volume in 1850 through 1865, the editor was David A. Wells. In these volumes can be found not only coverage of Eunice Foote's forgotten research (Wells, 1857, p. 159-160), but also John Tyndall's well-known work from 1859 (Wells, 1860, p. 174-175), as well as other research on related topics.

David Ames Wells (1828-1898) graduated in 1851 from Harvard University's Lawrence Scientific School, after starting his career in 1848 with the Springfield (Massachusetts) Republican newspaper. His background as a journalist and his access to the Harvard library clearly were factors in his becoming the first editor for The Annual of Scientific Discovery, and his scientific and writing skills were in evidence as he published introductory textbooks on chemistry, geology, natural philosophy, and general science in the late 1850s and early 1860s.

David Wells also wrote widely distributed papers related to economics, sufficiently impressing President Abraham Lincoln that he was appointed chairman of the U. S. Treasury Department's newly formed Revenue Commission in 1865, an assignment that caused him to turn over The Annual of Scientific Discovery to a new editor. For the rest of his career, Wells focused on government and business, and he is best known today for his innovative work in economics in the late 19th century (Anonymous, 1899; Wikipedia, 2011).


In the course of scientific discovery, it can be difficult to assess claims of priority, particularly if research results are not placed in the public domain through formal publication. This is commonplace for presentations at scientific conventions, where often only a title or perhaps an abstract is preserved for posterity. In the case of Eunice Foote's pioneering research on absorption of radiant energy by greenhouse gases, such as CO2, and the implication that compositional changes in the atmosphere could impact climate changes, it was only through the journalism of David Wells that the originality of her work has been documented. Despite the absence of a formal publication, it is clear that Eunice Foote deserves credit for being an innovator on the topic of CO2 and its potential impact on global climate warming

References Cited

AAAS, 1857, Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Tenth Meeting, held at Albany, New York, August, 1856. Joseph Lovering, Cambridge, 258 p.

Anonymous, 1899, David Ames Wells: The Journal of Political Economy, v. 7, University of Chicago Press, p. 93-95.

Fleming, James Rodger, 1998, Historical Perspectives on Climate Change: Oxford University Press, New York, 194 p.

Tyndall, John, 1859, Note on the transmission of heat through gaseous bodies: Proceedings Royal Society of London, v. 10, p. 37-39.

Tyndall, John, 1861, On the absorption and radiation of heat by gases and vapours, and on the physical connexion of radiation, absorption and conduction: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 151, part I, p. 1-36.

Wells, David A., ed., 1857, Annual of scientific discovery: or, year-book of facts in science and art, for 1857, exhibiting the most important discoveries and improvements in mechanics, useful arts, natural philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, zoology, botany, mineralogy,

geology, geography, antiquities, etc., together with a list of recent scientific publications; a classified list of patents; obituaries of eminent scientific men; notes on the progress of science during the year 1856, etc.: Gould and Lincoln, Boston, 406 p.

Wells, David A., ed., 1860, Annual of scientific discovery: or, year-book of facts in science and art, for 1860, exhibiting the most important discoveries and improvements in mechanics, useful arts, natural philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, geology, zoology, botany, mineralogy, meteorology, geography, antiquities, etc., together with notes on the progress of science during the year 1859; a list of recent scientific publications; obituaries of eminent scientific men; etc.: Gould and Lincoln, Boston, 430 p.


Wikipedia, 2011, “David Ames Wells”: Web accessed, January 9, 2011, Wikipedia, 2010, “Elisha Foote”: Web accessed, December 31, 2010,
Wikipedia, 2011, “John Tyndall”: Web accessed, January 3, 2011,
Wikipedia, 2011, “Mary Foote Henderson”: Web accessed, January 9, 2011, Wikipedia, 2011, “Seneca Falls Convention”: Web accessed, January 9, 2011,


Avatar / Picture

Space Pioneer
Posts: 197
Reply with quote  #49 
Unexpected Future Boost of Methane Possible from Arctic Permafrost
Ellen Gray, 23 August 2018, Space Daily
"New NASA-funded research has discovered that Arctic permafrost's expected gradual thawing and the associated release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere may actually be sped up by instances of a relatively little known process called abrupt thawing. Abrupt thawing takes place under a certain type of Arctic lake, known as a thermokarst lake that forms as permafrost thaws. The impact on the climate may mean an influx of permafrost-derived methane into the atmosphere in the mid-21st century, which is not currently accounted for in climate projections. The Arctic landscape stores one of the largest natural reservoirs of organic carbon in the world in its frozen soils. But once thawed, soil microbes in the permafrost can turn that carbon into the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, which then enter into the atmosphere and contribute to climate warming."


Avatar / Picture

Space Pioneer
Posts: 197
Reply with quote  #50 
Global warming’s paper trail
Benjamin Franta, 13 September 2018, New York Times
STANFORD – One day in 1961, an American economist named Daniel Ellsberg stumbled across a piece of paper with apocalyptic implications. Ellsberg, who was advising the US government on its secret nuclear-war plans, had discovered a document that contained an official estimate of the death toll in a preemptive “first strike” on China and the Soviet Union: approximately 300 million in those countries, and double that globally.

Ellsberg was troubled that such a plan existed; years later, he tried to leak the details of nuclear annihilation to the public. Although this attempt failed, Ellsberg would later become famous for leaking what came to be known as the Pentagon Papers – the US government’s secret history of its military intervention in Vietnam.

America’s amoral military planning during the Cold War echoes the hubris exhibited by another cast of characters gambling with the fate of humanity. Recently, secret documents have been unearthed detailing what the energy industry knew about the links between their products and global warming. But, unlike the government’s nuclear plans, what the industry detailed was put into action.

In the 1980s, oil companies like Exxon and Shell carried out internal assessments of the carbon dioxide released by fossil fuels, and forecast the planetary consequences of these emissions. In 1982, for example, Exxon predicted that by about 2090, CO2 levels would double relative to the 1800s, and that this, according to the best science at the time, would push the planet’s average temperatures up by about 3°C.

Later that decade, in 1988, an internal report by Shell projected similar effects, but also found that CO2 could double even earlier, by 2030. Privately, these companies did not dispute the links between their products, global warming, and ecological calamity. On the contrary, their research confirmed the connections.

Shell’s assessment foresaw a 60-70cm rise in sea level, and noted that warming could also fuel the disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, resulting in a worldwide rise in sea level of “five to six meters.” That would be enough to inundate entire low-lying countries.

Shell’s analysts also warned of the “disappearance of specific ecosystems or habitat destruction,” predicted an increase in “runoff, destructive floods, and inundation of low-lying farmland,” and said that “new sources of freshwater would be required” to compensate for changes in precipitation. Global changes in air temperature would also “drastically change the way people live and work.” All told, Shell concluded, “the changes may be the greatest in recorded history.”

For its part, Exxon warned of “potentially catastrophic events that must be considered.” Like Shell’s experts, Exxon’s scientists predicted devastating sea-level rise, and warned that the American Midwest and other parts of the world could become desert-like. Looking on the bright side, the company expressed its confidence that “this problem is not as significant to mankind as a nuclear holocaust or world famine.”

The documents make for frightening reading. And the effect is all the more chilling in view of the oil giants’ refusal to warn the public about the damage that their own researchers predicted. Shell’s report, marked “confidential,” was first disclosed by a Dutch news organization earlier this year. Exxon’s study was not intended for external distribution, either; it was leaked in 2015.

Nor did these companies ever take responsibility for their products. In Shell’s study, the firm argued that the “main burden” of addressing climate change rests not with the energy industry, but with governments and consumers. That argument might have made sense if oil executives, including those from Exxon and Shell, had not later lied about climate change and actively prevented governments from enacting clean-energy policies.

Although the details of global warming were foreign to most people in the 1980s, among the few who had a better idea than most were the companies contributing the most to it. Despite scientific uncertainties, the bottom line was this: oil firms recognized that their products added CO2 to the atmosphere, understood that this would lead to warming, and calculated the likely consequences. And then they chose to accept those risks on our behalf, at our expense, and without our knowledge.

The catastrophic nuclear war plans that Ellsberg saw in the 1960s were a Sword of Damocles that fortunately never fell. But the oil industry’s secret climate-change predictions are becoming reality, and not by accident. Fossil-fuel producers willfully drove us toward the grim future they feared by promoting their products, lying about the effects, and aggressively defending their share of the energy market.

As the world warms, the building blocks of our planet – its ice sheets, forests, and atmospheric and ocean currents – are being altered beyond repair. Who has the right to foresee such damage and then choose to fulfill the prophecy? Although war planners and fossil-fuel companies had the arrogance to decide what level of devastation was appropriate for humanity, only Big Oil had the temerity to follow through. That, of course, is one time too many.

The writer is a former research fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

Previous Topic | Next Topic

Quick Navigation:

Easily create a Forum Website with Website Toolbox.